Volume 2: Section II – Establish a Viable Development Framework.
FRAMEWORK OF A VILLAGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
by Padma Bhushan, Dr.Bindeshwar Pathak
India, one of the leading developing countries, has made tremendous progress in the fields of agriculture, industries, power generation, economic and social sector during the post-independence planning era. The country now proudly claims to be self- sufficient, in food production. The achievement in industrial product ion and power generation has been remarkable. Literacy, health and life expectancy reflect substantial gains. The gross domestic product and the national income have considerably improved.
Inspite of impressive levels of growth over past four decades, large percentage of population is still below the poverty line. A little over one-third of the rural population has yet not been satisfactorily benefitted from a large number of rural development programmes. Besides being poor, several hundred million people in the rural areas are still deprived of essential facilities like basic education, primary health care, clean water, sanitation, shelter and improved nutrition. Truly speaking, much remains to be achieved in the rural sector. In spite of being the predominant sector it has failed to receive the attention it merits. Creation of island of prosperity in urban areas has been at the cost of poverty of the masses in the rural areas. Reconstruction of rural life has not been accorded that much of attention as has been the case of industrialization and urbanization. Rural development, inspite of being an old concern in India has not contributed to the fulfillment of the basic requirement of village life.
Many programmes has been introduced for agricultural improvement, industrial expansion, infrastructure creation and for the development of socio – educational facilities. Attempts have been made to reshape the village society. The achievement of spectacular development notwithstanding, there are instances of lapses and neglect also . Some of the basic needs of the villages have not been taken into account. This has happened inspite of the fact that radical transformation has taken place in almost all walks of life.
In addition to these, programmes of rural development have skewed in favour of the rich. Massive financial resources and development spurt triggered in its wake have been mediated through fragmented, feudal and hierarchical social structure leaving the poor in the morass of degradation. The deprived sections of society situated at the bottom of the hierarchy, namely landless laborers, tribals, pastoralists, traditional craft men – have been recipients of sparse benefits. The new contents and fresh concerns incorporated in strategies for development could touch only the fringe of the problem. As a result large percentage of population, especially in rural areas, is still below the poverty line’. A little over one-third of the total population has not yet been benefited from these development programmes. Rural India is thus afflicted by pervasive and degrading poverty of millions.
INTEGRATED RURAL – URBAN DEVELOPMENT. A COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE APPROACH
by P.V. Indiresan
The integrated water and waste treatment scheme indicated in the accompanying figure shows how rain water may be harvested and reused several times in domestic applications. It also points out how domestic wastes may be optimally treated and utilized for generating biogas and vegetables. The scheme is such that it can be implemented in parts. That is particularly useful where space is a constraint, and it is infeasible to implement the ideas in full, for example, linking waste water with farming.
To start with rainwater is harvested. Assuming that the annual rainfall is at least 60 cm and a third of it at least may be harvested, a 500 sq.m. area per household will yield 100 cubic meters of rain water – 260 liters per day. Incidentally, 500 sq.m. per household is the average land area available in New York. Hence, it is not large as it might appear at first sight, although by Indian standards that is indeed a large area. However, such a large area is not a prerequisite; significant benefits may be obtained with much smaller land space also.
The rain water is used initially for cooking and bathing purposes. The sullage water that results thereby is minimally treated for use in toilets. The sewage from the toilets and vegetable wastes from the household are given to a biodigester. The slurry from the biodigester is used in a vegetable farm, with the wastes from the farm also being fed back to the biodigester.
Reuse of the sullage water virtually doubles the availability of water for household purposes. The attached farm utilizes the fact that households are a pellilial source of waste water. Typically, 150-200 sq.m. of cultivate area of subabul can give enough feed stock of leaves to produce one cubic meter of gas per day – enough for normal cooking purposes.
The use of the biodigester has three advantages: Firstly, the effluent is virtually non-toxic, and hence the digester replaces sewage treatment. Secondly, it cuts down the lead distance for transporting sewage and domestic wastes. Thirdly, as most of the wastes are re-cycled, the need for landfills for dumping wastes is appreciably reduced. Where there is insufficient space for cultivation, the sewage may still be treated in a biodigester to obtain non-toxic effluent. The gas obtained will naturally be much less: in such a case, the thumb rule is, there will be enough gas for one-eighth the households. For instance, if a block of flats houses 16 families, two of them will get enough gas for cooking purposes. That could be a welcome perquisite for the maintenance staff who will then be happy to keep the system in good repair.
The scheme may be operated in two modes: small individual units for each household, or medium sized digesters for the cooperative use of a score or so of households. The former will be socially more attractive; the latter will be more economical.
The entire scheme is a combination of well known techniques. Hence, there are no technological problems to be solved. The real problem is with management; that is where innovation is required. At least in the case of future urban extensions or in new construct ion, these ideas may be incorporated with profit.
In rural areas, instead of attempting to redistribute land – which has proved impossible · it may be workable to guarantee, say, 500 sq.m. of land for each family. Then, this scheme may be implemented to ensure that each family has enough water, fuel, vegetables along with environmentally safe waste disposal As it is well known that a major reason why Indian rural families have large children is to forage for firewood and to collect water, a scheme of this nature may even help to reduce population pressure.
EXAMINING THE ROLE OF THE RURAL NON FARM ECONOMY ON FARM OUT-MIGRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
by Ricardo C. Lima
Rural-urban migration models commonly assume that rural labor force is completely employed in agriculture. Many studies on rural labor markets in developing countries, however, have indicated that a significant portion of rural employment occurs in nonfarm activities. Therefore, rural emigration studies need to include the rural nonfarm economy as an influence on the expected income of potential migrants. The present study incorporates the rural nonfarm economy in the traditional rural-urban migration framework to define an out-migration function for developing countries.
UPGRADING LIKII VILLAGE – ROLES OF NGOs AND PVOs IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
by Carol McEowen
This paper presents the story of Likii Village as a case study of a Peace Corps volunteer’s efforts to help formulate and institute an upgrading plan for a large squatter settlement in Nanyuki, Kenya.
Its story – its problems and successes – provide important information which can be used in designing sustainable Village Development guidelines. It will also show the importance of NGOs and PVOs in such development work.
RECLAIMING DEVELOPMENT FOR THE PEOPLE: DEVELOPMENT AS A POLITICAL PROCESS.
by Barry Vesser
That development is a political process will seem self evident to most of those involved in the field. This realization is, however, historically a relatively recent one for major donor agencies, who have traditionally focused their theoretical and material resources on development’s economic aspects in isolation from political realities. This has led, on the one hand, to the granting of millions of dollars in humanitarian assistance with little effort to address the underlying structural causes of poverty, and on the other the extension of billions of dollars in loans and grants to governments or institutions who have a vested interest in preserving the power relationships of the status quo, and who frequently cannot be said to represent the people in their domain. Even organizations that have long paid lip service to the importance of political participation in development may not have thoroughly explored its implications. Furthermore, at time when the dissolution of the Soviet Union has made communist and socialist models of development almost irrelevant, and an unrestrained free market approach seems in unrivaled ascendance as the current controlling ideology of the international economic system, perhaps it is timely for us to relearn that no purely economic model fully explains the development process or adequately addresses the long term needs of the poor and oppressed. Development theory and practice historically appear to be both trendy and cyclical, and since the present trend is toward stressing economic reforms over political ones, an analysis of the shortcomings of such an approach is in order. This chapter will examine the implications of development as a political process for non-governmental organizations, which are playing an increasingly central role in the development process.
The word development, it has been noted, means many different things to different people. For our purposes development will be defined as the process of controlling and managing a society’s or group’s means of production with the goal of establishing or maintaining a system for the distribution of its resources. Although this definition is far too restrictive, (as Guy Gran reminds us “development, in its broadest meaning, is the liberation of human potential, “‘) it does have the virtue of not including normative elements which would prejudice our study from the start . Later I will argue that since development is and should be a political process, it is also inherently a normative enterprise. For the moment, though we will keep that cart behind the horse, and thereby hopefully avoid the charge of tautology.
NEGOTIATING SUSTAINABLE RURAL (RE)DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
by M. Hasan
“The world of the happy man is a different from that of an unhappy man”. Wittgenstein (1921) Rural India’s core characteristics are its traditions, castes, agrarian economy and missing land reforms. Unemployment; illiteracy, rural-urban migration and unplanned development-induced inequities underlie poverty and ethnic conflicts in rural areas. Administrative anomie, poor professional ethics, lack of reliable baseline data and decentralized planning at village level reify rural stagnation. That rural (re) construction is now an urgent agenda is evident from the 73rd Amendment of the Indian Constitution for decentralized planning at village level and gradual working of enlightened civil servants, planners, NGOs and rural communities in tandem for rural (re)development. On the basis of our two recent empirical studies in India, covering Rajasthan State’s 145 villages confronted with irrigation-induced displacement and industrial wastes polluting land and water, some diagnostic policy measures are suggested for negotiating (re) development. Empowerment of village communities through implementation of the constitutional provisions for decentralized planning and professional inputs in it should be a core administrative idiom for sustainable rural (re)development to emancipate the majority from poverty.
THE ROLE OF WOKBN PARTICIPATION IN HEALTH; DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS ON CHILD SURVIVAL
by Roosmalawati Rusman
This paper present a comparative study of Women Participation in Health Development programs in two regencies in Indonesia: Gunung Kidul in DIY province in Sumbawa in NTB pays an important role in determining child survival in both areas. The connection between health related intervention programs and women participation seem to be important. Community activities, particularly the women’s activities organized by few comparatively well –educated women in Gunung Kidul, have played a vital role in influencing women’s attitude towards health care and in involving of the majority of lower educated women in health programmes. The Sumbawa case study presented in this study reflects conditions where the participation of women in the community and their position is not as strong as in Java.
PEOPLE’S HEALTH IN PEOPLE’S HANDS JAMKHED. A TWENTY – THREE – YEAR EXPERIENCE IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
by Maybelle Arole
The twentieth century has been an age of rapid technological advances and the emergence of politically independent nations once subject to colonial rule. However, over two-thirds of the world continues to have less than acceptable quality of life and lack basic needs such as water, food, shelter and health facilities. In addition, they experience social and economic injustice. To them the process of development remains a utopian dream. Development programs planned and implemented through bureaucratic institutions such as governments have done little to change the lot of marginalized people, specially women and children living in the villages. Generally the fruits of development have reached only the top 20 percent of the population. In the past few years, several micro level, successful programs have been developed which have shown that when people are involved in the development process, sustainable development can take place. I welcome this consultation as there is the need for us to share the varied experiences of such programs and seek ways of scaling up.
Knowledge is a common pool of experience accumulated over centuries. In modem times, this common pool of knowledge has been further studied, mystified and kept in the hands of a few and shared with common people at a cost, people can ill afford. Health is considered a fundamental right in most countries, yet the knowledge of how to attain and maintain health has become the prerogative of a few. This has led not only to inequity, with fewer and fewer people having access to health, it has also made people dependent on the medical profession for all health matters. But, health is ultimately dependent on all aspects of life-economic, social, psychological, spiritual and environmental and not on the medical profession alone. It is therefore necessary to address all these issues that affect health. Health programs therefore cannot be developed in a vacuum. It has to be integrated with overall development. Empowerment of people is central to development. Much attention has been paid by governments and “Aid Agencies· to the development of hard technology, but little attention has been given to the softer areas of development namely the empowerment of people. Academic knowledge and skills may be provided, but it is development of self confidence and value based self-esteem that ultimately leads to the development of people. Empowerment of people who are disenfranchised, marginalized and poor is essential for successful involvement of people in the development process. I wish to share with you some of my experiences in a successful health and development program in Jamkhed, Maharashtra, India. The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP), a non governmental organization, was started in late 1970 with a view to develop a sustainable health program suited to the needs and resources of the area. As the program evolved, village men and women have been empowered to plan, implement and monitor their own health programs.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL SETTLEMENT ENVIRONMENT – A CASE STUDY IN INDIA
by Dr. M.Thaha
The ultimate goal of rural development efforts is to improve the quality of life of the people in the villages, which is largely determined, by the condition of the settlement- environment . Therefore improvement of the settlement-environment is necessary for the full satisfaction of basic needs.
The physical environment _________ which includes houses, roads, drainage, water supply system, electricity and other__________ only a product of Government policies and ____ but is also the result of the socio-economic conditions and cultural characteristics of the people residing in the villages.
Of late there is a greater realization of the need to improve the quality of the rural settlement environment for sustainable development of the villages as well as to check the exodus of people from rural to urban settlements .
The paper presents a case study of a group of ten villages known as Somangalam village cluster in Chengalpattu district in the state Tamil Nadu in India. The present socioeconomic and physical environment status and their interrelationships have been assessed and the various environmental problems in the area have been identified. As the appalling conditions of services and facilities in the rural areas particularly third world countries are well known, quantitative assessment of the environmental conditions in different rural settlements and ranking them accordingly for taking up certain settlements on priority basis for undertaking environment programmes is necessary. The study has dealt with this aspect also and suggested plan of action for environmental improvement in these villages highlighting the various planning principles.
Management of the physical assets created is a prerequisite for utilization of the assets and sustainable development. In this context the operation and maintenance of various systems and the organizational arrangements in the study area have also been studied and necessary modifications have been suggested.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ASPIRATIONS OF TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL RURAL FARM WOMEN OF UDAIPUR DISTRICT
by Latika Vyas
The present study was conducted in rural areas of Udaipur district of Rajasthan to study the aspirations of tribal and non tribal rural farm women and factors associated with it. The sample consisted of 120 rural farm women – 60 tribal and 60 nontribal women. Findings of the study indicate that there was a significant difference in the aspirations of tribal and non-tribal farm women. More than half (60%) of the non-tribal and 48.3% of tribal women possessed average levels of aspirations. Half of the respondents of both the groups (51.6%) aspired to provide education to their sons more than to their daughters. Both the groups did not consider education to their daughters as necessary. A large number of women aspired government jobs for their son than their daughters. There was no marked difference in the aspiration of women of both the groups for the increase of their income higher use of agricultural implements and increase and income source animals. Still a non-tribal women aspired more than tribal women in increase of agricultural land, its output, facilities in the household equipments and utensils. Age, occupation, caste, land , urban contacts family size were less important to them than the increase in the social and economics the status of the family. Women of both the groups were also contest in think present status and facilities.
BALANCED MULTI SECTOR DEVELOPMENT
by Ibrahim Ali
1.1 Indian Sub-Continent, consisting of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan, constitute 25% of world population at 1.25 billion. Its three-fourth population 1 billion people rural poor live in villages. Having an experience of working in this region, my paper will cover this area.
Villages have grown mostly based on agriculture or other source of livelihood. The houses are scattered, have no, or haphazard planning. The population varies between 100 and 2,000, village of above 500 population is a major village, above 5,000 is a town, and about 10,000 is a city.
Occupation of villagers are generally:
- (a) Agriculture
- (b) Animal husbandry
- (c) Village artisan
- (d) Unemployed youth
Economic condition among villagers can be stated as :
Poor 40% } Below poverty line
Meager earning 30% }
Meets their end 15% Middle class
Basic Development Unit (BDU) consists of 30 to 40 villages with a population of 50,000 is ideal unit for smooth and efficient development programme.
Industrialization is an easy answer for economic growth and eradication of poverty.
“A Lead-Zinc smelter with matching beneficiation plant in Rajasthan, India was built based on exploitation of local deposit at a cost of 350 million $ with 150 million $ aid from Government of U.K. The project is located in remote backward area serving a population of about 150,000 to improve their economic standard and social transformation”.
“Objective was achieved compared to other failure”. The suggestion in this paper is based on the experience gained on this project.
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AS A BASIS FOR NEW GROWTH IN LOCAL COMMUNITIES
by Knut H. KvalvAgnas
A major task is to reduce the classic conflict between the working places and the environment. Living in a rural area where the most important sources of income are agriculture and fishing, it is a major task to make the inhabitants think more environment in their doing. We must start where environment and profit have mutual interests.
Doing so, we have reached amazing results with three private enterprises:
- A. Preplast Industrier (plastic industry)
- B. Nordm¢re og Romsdal meieri avd.
- Elneavagen (dairy)
- C. Hustadmarmor (mineral industry)
In cooperation with A, we have developed a new method for renovating old and untight agricultural silos.
In cooperation with B, the municipality financed the building of a new factory making food products of the surplus whey from cheese production.
At the moment, the municipality works closely together with C on the challenge of reducing their outlets of powdered chalk to the fjord by finding other fields of use for this resource.
TRANSITION FROM CENTRALIZED TO DECENTRALIZED DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA : THE COMMUNITARIAN PERSPECTIVE
by Autar S. Dhesi
The paper examines the nature of development strategy, adopted by India after Independence, its evolution and performance. Then it discusses the recent changes in approach to development with shift from centralized to indicative planning in the Eighth Plan. The new approach explicitly recognizes the importance of people’s initiative, and the role of non – governmental organizations in development. At the end , the contribution of two institutions to skill generation and transfer of technology in the rural areas is discussed. These institutions exemplify the synthesis of modernity and tradition becoming a powerful instrument of socio – economic change. The motive force has been the largely ignored communitarian spirit. If harnessed properly, it can help in wiping out misery from the face of humanity.
POLICY ENVIRONMENT – CO-ORDINATION WITH GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACIES : IMO STATE, NIGERIA
by Chukwunonyerem C. Iwuagwu
I have been asked to speak “Policy Environment-ordination with Government Bureaucracies:
- A . Pitfalls
- B. Innovative Government / Non-government relationships
- C. Advantage s and disadvantages of working within or outside government structures.”
What impresses me most in this conference is that the choice of the subjects for discussion seem to emerge from the careful and painstaking studies carried out by men of goodwill from the developed countries in their bid to find out why, in spite of the enormous amounts of money and energy spent by their governments, organizations and institutions over a good number of years, to raise the economic and social well being of the poor class of the under-developed countries of the world, only very marginal successes have been recorded. They have studied the methods and techniques used by the operator s in these few cases of successes and they now want to build a model and prepare a manual which could be used by the present and future implementers of this noble idea to multiply these successes so that the poor could cease to grow poorer at least, and if the rich should continue to be richer it should not be at the extortion of the disadvantaged class of the people.
Volume 2: Section III – Build A Resource Access Mechanism
RIGHT TECHNOLOGY FOR LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT
by H. Jasiorowski
_______________________________________decision on the most suitable technologies for village based development in the most unprivileged countries. Animal production will be our area of considerations.
Village-based problems of development is our target but it is obvious that some general problems of livestock and policy options in developing countries should be mentioned here as well.
ACCESS TO RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT
by Darwin D. Solomon
ABSTRACT / FOCUS OF THE PAPER
This paper will specify primarily, what the author considers to be the proven “means” for accessibility to important development resources and for whom. It is our judgment, from years of study and observation, that the primary determinants to participation in development are the accessibility of those means–both to the community and to the individuals and households.2. Nor is the “external relations” person of the household necessarily the director or “boss”. He/she may be the decision-maker on some matters, but must defer on others.
WOMEN-IN-DEVELOPMENT – A SMALL BUSINESS WORKSHOP
by Jeanne L. Kretschmer
Basic small business training specifically designed for village women provides an essential first step into the free market system.
A small business workshop unlocks restricted doors for village women. They learn to acknowledge that they, too, are capable of contributing to the commercial welfare of the community.
In most village situations the women are the workers of the community. Their aptitude to learning basic skills increases dramatically as they perceive that they can achieve monetary rewards for their traditional labor habits.
Achieving the goal of providing additional income for their families and their community accomplishes many subsidiary aims of village development.
- A. Women develop self-esteem.
- B. The status of women in the hierarchy of the community is improved.
- C. Women are stimulated to learn and to use undeveloped talents.
- D. Their minds are opened to new concepts which will in turn be taught to their
- children. This is the optimum goal of village development.
EDUCATIONAL METHODS USED/SUBJECT MATTER AREAS DELIVERED BY EXTENSION OFFICERS
by Okechukwu M. Ukaga, Edgar P. Yoder
Nigerian Extension officers use pedagogical methods with agricultural clientele which provide opportunities for farmers to participate in planning programs/activities. These methods are characterized by high contact, greater client involvement and less reliance on technology. Only about one-half of the Extension officers in the Imo State of Nigeria reported formal preparation in the use of Extension education methodology. Extension personnel need to become more knowledgeable about how to help local clientele to become empowered. This will contribute to local citizens being able to more effectively utilize a variety of resources and directly and efficiently develop long-term solutions to local issues. Extension in developing countries has a key role in empowering citizens to develop sustainable communities.
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND VILLAGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT
by Bernard Woods
ABSTRACT / THE NEED FOR NEW VISION
The underlying rationale for international development investment over the past 40 years has been a physical/economic/production-centered approach aimed at raising countries’ GNP. Shortcomings in the effects of that Investment are well researched and documented. Calls from public platforms for greater people’s participation, attention to women’s needs, institutional development, community-based development and greater involvement of the private sector in development have steadily increased, but no formula has emerged to achieve these objectives on a large scale, sustainable basis.
Meanwhile, the wealth of experience around the world of success in community programmes all shows that other ingredients that address development from the perspective’s of the ‘beneficiaries’ are needed in addition to the funds, infrastructure, physical inputs and good Intentions of independent projects in agriculture, health, nutrition, water supply, education and other goals. Recently there has been a swing in the emphasis of the assistance by the major donor agencies towards the ‘social dimension of development’. But effective approaches fur achieving social development goals remain at the periphery of mainstream international assistance and of the macroeconomic planning on which that assistance is justified.
Andre Spier summarizes the situation as follows :
“Modem societies are too complex to be managed from the top, and public demand is too varied to be met from central administrative authority. The search for a viable alternative is global and intense. This search has given rise to ‘the Theory of Public Choice’. Central features of this theory are democratization, decentralization, and privatization
Democratization means the empowerment of individuals by affording them a direct say in matters affecting their day-to-day lives.
Decentralization means the empowerment of communities to take charge of their own affairs as far as welfare functions are concerned – education, health, housing, job creation, culture, religion, sport and recreation and the. management of their natural resources. This implies removing superfluous bureaucratic layers between communities and central authorities.
Privatization means enabling communities to take responsibility for these functions through delegated powers, equal financial inputs and through appropriate education and skill formation.
The crux of the theory of public choice is that no one of its three elements can be realized without fulfilling the other two. A fundamental contradiction in government development is that while claiming to act in the interest of the people, government centralize decision making, and their bureaucratic processes resists privatization. Most governments are attempting to decentralize decision making and accountability to local levels. No government has yet been able to provide adequate tools and create the skills and systems needed to do so on country-wide scale.
A new vision is called tor to overcome these contradictions, and to create the environments of thinking and policies in which the joint objectives of the theory become possible.”
LOCAL PEOPLE AND RESOURCES AS CATALYSTS TO IMPROVE MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH
by Miriam E. King-Dagen, Alicia Medina Garay
This paper stresses the importance of non-formal education in achieving sustainability in women in development projects and achieving villager participation. It also briefly compares the “conventional” model of compartmentalizing the lives of women and children into programs such as “family planning”, “immunizations”, and “gender issues”, with a more sustainable model utilizing a holistic approach which works with women as mothers, sisters, daughters, keepers of the home, and sometimes wives.
Giving a narrative history of a three-year pilgrimage of World Neighbors in Honduras as a reproductive health care component was incorporated into successful sustainable agriculture programs, the paper winds up with three case studies of malnourished children under five recuperated at home with locally available foodstuffs (often growing in backyards), and some lessons learned.
A CASE STUDY IN COMMUNITY BANKING : KATALYSIS NORTH/SOUTH DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP
by Karie Brown, Marian Doub
In 1989 the Katalysis Partnership, based in the San Francisco Bay Area, piloted community banking with the Organization for Women’s Enterprise Development (ODEF), a Honduran nongovernmental organization (NGO). The primary purpose of community banking (also called village banking) is to provide small-scale loans in a cost-effective manner to the “poorest of the poor.” After an introduction to the Katalysis Partnership, the history of community banking, and a detailed description of the Katalysis model, this paper will explore the general issues and impact of the program, and strategies for graduation of the banks.
IMPLICATIONS OF A WESTERN SAMOAN CASE FOR A GENERAL MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT
by Deborah D. Paulson
Although indigenous village-level institutions in rural Western Samoa have generally been successful in providing social cohesion and basic material needs for all members of the village, village resource use and the economic system are probably not sustainable. Some outside agents, concerned with the failings of the indigenous institutions, have recommended fundamental changes in Western Samoa’s social system. However, the importance of the local indigenous institutions for village motivation and self reliance were demonstrated by the response of Western Samoan villages to the devastation caused by a strong hurricane in 1990. It is argued that where indigenous institutions provide this level of social cohesion, the most appropriate role for outside agencies is to facilitate these institutions in defining the problems they face and in formulating solutions.
WOMEN MICRO-ENTREPRENEURS IN BOTSWANA
by Grace Sunny
Scarcity of jobs in the formal sector poses as development problem in most of the developing economies. One of the solutions lie s in creating adequate viable microenterprises through positive policies. In Botswana, a survey of 1140 microenterprises was conducted during June- August 1992. This paper examines the prospect of women Microentrepreneurs based on part of the survey data. The study found that 70 per cent of the units are owned by women, who use internal funds to set up the business. Majority (70 per cent), obtain about P500 net income in a good month. Prospect for growth is limited in the absence of getting contract for large orders. Lack of finance is the major constraint. They enjoy some facilitating regulations and 85 per cent want to continue in this business.
by Roy Shaffer
The Appropriate Technology wave of the ’70s left behind a few improvements appropriate enough to become acculturated, for example ferrocement latrine slabs. But the AT wave is memorialized more by numerous derelict devices which never earned sustained acceptance. An example is home water filtration. These failures were often a case of appropriate ideas being inappropriately presented and/or being left in the hands of inappropriate people. The idea was unsustainable.
Which people in a Third World neighborhood tend to be the main initiators of new development? The Mothers. They are the most overworked and thus they have the most to gain. Initiative-taking mothers need our encouragement, facilitation and even inspiration with practical ideas which they might wish to try out at home. Those ideas which prove worthy could be labeled “Mother-Appropriate Technology” .
This paper considers some mother-appropriate technologies which are applicable at the community level . By “community” we mean a geographic neighborhood wherein almost all families are personally acquainted. Only in that small a social unit can you expect enough unity to justify the strict use of the word community or community.
A.T. should facilitate healthy community development. By “development” we mean acculturated improvement. In this context the word acculturated should be taken to mean that the improvement has become community-based. “Community based” means that the majority of initiative-taking , resource-mobilization and sustained responsibility-carrying for that technology is of, by, or from the community itself quite apart from what outside institution-based people might do there.
PROVIDING CAPITAL FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE- BASED DEVELOPMENT (CAPITALIZING THE POOR)
by David W. Havens
Micro-enterprise development can assist in expanding participation of extremely poor people in capital producing economic systems at the village level if the shifting values and aspirations of the global market place are understood.
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
by Sr. Delphine M. Rasquinha
Most rural Indian women work long hours but a good deal of what they do is yet to be recognized as productive work. That which is considered productive is often underpaid for. When their work life is over they have nothing to show for it _ no savings, no assets, dependent fully on the working members of the family.
This paper gives you four models, sufficiently experimented, evaluated and monitored by which power can be transferred to illiterate rural women. Through thrift and credit cooperatives and saving schemes the women are empowered to meet the felt needs of the village by their own efforts. The women build confidence as workers, as managers and as decision makers. Women learn to work collectively, to set useful agendas and to work through them in a democratic, cooperative manner. Seeing is believing. You are invited to see the video film showing women developing their villages through thrift cooperatives-skillful management of an enterprise for women, by women and through women.
ROLE OF NGO IN INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT”
by Prasad Rasal
INDIA believes in what Mahatma Gandhiji said, “There is enough for everyone’ s need but nothing for anyone’s greed. ” A real definition of sustainable development. In various cases where NGOs are working, natural resources management is in the hands of local persons and the benefits distribution is on equitable basis, to be sustainable. Which ensures prudent use and avoids chronic shortages. This paper describes integrated technology approach that NGO can take for sustainable village development.
DEVELOPMENT of HUMAN RESOURCES THROUGH LIVESTOCK PROJECTS
by Jennifer Shumaker
Over the last 50 years, Heifer Project International (HPI) has evolved from a rehabilitation organization delivering dairy heifers to war-torn Europe into a grassroots-based agricultural development agency using livestock as a catalyst for human development in rural areas worldwide. During this evolution we have made many mistakes, and learned many valuable lessons from the best of all possible teachers: rural people whose daily challenge is keeping their families fed and healthy.
Since most HPI staff are livestock specialists, the development of human resources is where the most learning has taken place. This paper will share some of HPI’s experiences as we have attempted to systematize our approach into a viable, just and sustainable development process. The paper will cover selected aspects of policy and project implementation on three levels: international program policy managed from headquarters in Little Rock; country program relationships managed within each country; and village-level training.
EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PEACE: A PEDAGOGY FOR THE POOR
by S. P. Udayakumar
The modern education system, which claims to treat every child equally irrespective of their socio-economic status, or individual capabilities, is a delusion. Giving the poor a broad general education is neither liberating nor meeting their basic learning needs. Even when public education is accessible to the poor, it proves to be of little worth for their development and peace. Hence the poor are driven to child labor.
The child laborers are denied their legitimate birthright, viz. a joyous childhood. Instead, they are forced to add to their families’ income at the cost of their natural growth and development. They work long and hard in unsafe work places and under oppressive circumstances for meager salaries. Their amenability to discipline, punishment and control, easy acceptance of deprivation, and absence of any kind of organizational support make them even more vulnerable.
If “education for all” includes the poor and marginalized, we need to reinvent the education system to focus on life-oriented “basic education” instead of a school curriculum geared toward higher education. We have to come up with innovative educational programs where the poor children earn an income and learn a job skill. Such empowering educational programs should combine education, work, and play. The children may learn a skill, general literacy, numeracy, oralcy, and conflict resolution skills, and also earn a remuneration for their field work.
This pedagogy for the poor has to be grounded on revolutionary theories of peace, development, and education. With an isomorphic analysis of peace and agriculture, the paper argues for human-centered development which emphasizes basic learning opportunities for and empowerment of the poor and powerless.
A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF FIVE NGO MICRO ENTERPRISE CREDIT AGENCIES IN JAMAICA : ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMAND
by Benson Honig
ABSTRACT / INTRODUCTION
The unavailability of credit to the informal sector is frequently cited as a major impediment to the operation and growth of small firms in Jamaica, as well as other developing countries [Anderson, 1992, Dessing 1990, Fisshela, 1979, Lubell 1991. Lycette and White 1989, Statin, 1983]. While there are several potential sources of such credit, including banks, microenterprise lending agencies, family, and informal credit arrangements, the limited scope and availability of such monies for Jamaican microentrepreneurs are widely acknowledged [Anderson , 1992, Fisshela, 1979, Statin , 1983]. This dearth of institutional credit has been recognized by bilateral and multilateral institutions such as the ILO, USAID, and the World Bank. Beginning in the 1980’s, they have undertaken to develop, promote, and support several credit institutions whose primary directive is to provide credit to Jamaican microenterprise.
Despite the considerable amount of money spent on credit support programs, research regarding the selection processes and institutional characteristics of lending organizations has been scant. In broad terms, little is known regarding the effects of expanding credit in the informal sector: Who are the clienteles? Do their backgrounds differ from the “universe” of informal sector firms? If so, are the recipients culturally or socioeconomically different? Are institutional forces at work that focus on a homogeneous clientele, or does the market determine the applicant pool?
VILLAGE PARTICIPATION AND FARMER’S RESPONSE TO THE GREEN REVOLUTION IN GHANA
by Sara E. Alexander
In 1986, the Sasakawa Global 2000 program initiated their green revolution efforts with maize and sorghum farmers in Ghana. Initial enrollments have been staggering and yields have been impressive. While the SG2000 program has integrated ideas like relative advantage, compatibility, simplicity and triability into the program, many farmers who adopt the measures may do so only temporarily. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to provide a brief review of current and future agricultural policies in Ghana, (2) to summarize the specifics of the Sasakawa Global 2000 program, and (3) to identify those factors governing the nature of the farmer’s adoption of the Sg 2000 technology.
WOMEN AND SHELTER STRATEGIES AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL IN URBAN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS
by Sophia Kyamanywa
A healthy environment is a prerequisite for the population to participate fully in the process of social and economic development. The same perspective is upheld by the Vancouver Declaration of human rights which states among others: “Adequate Shelter and Services are a basic human right which places an obligation on governments to ensure their attainment by all people, beginning with direct assistance to the disadvantaged.”
Unlike in the past when human settlements were often in harmony with the surroundings today they are faced with various hazards which have hindered their development rendering then to deterioration in a range of social deterioration in social and economic conditions adversely affecting the provision of essential services including shelter among others.
The above scenario is based on the economic base characterized by primary production of which agriculture constitutes 60%, provides livelihood to 90% of the population, 80% to export earnings and at least 50% to gross domestic product. This is further aggravated by the heavy burden of debt servicing (occasioned among other by structural adjustment loans) now estimated a t 70% of Gross Domestic Product. But one important pattern and character of this situation for development planning and policy, is the gross inequalities with steady marginalization of the most vulnerable groups especially the women in urban informal settlements.
WOMEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN BANGLADESH: STATUS, CONSEQUENCE AND MEASURES
by Shaheen Akter
Women constitute the majority of· deprived sector of the population in Bangladesh. An important reason for this is the low access to education and training. Education system is not universal. Female literacy rate is only half of the male literacy rate. Female drop-out rate between class I and class V is 80 per cent which is double the male drop-out rate. Female share in secondary education abruptly comes down to one-fifth to that of primary education. Female participation in higher education and training is negligible.
In addition to economic constraints our socio-cultural norms and practices are a persistent obstacle to educational participation by girls. The narrow base of female education has economic, cultural, demographic, political, legal and environmental consequences.
A major change in the content of education is required to increase its demand. Functional education to illiterate or drop out females who are above 10 years of age may be useful to improve their status. This functional education must be for their own activities. Such programs of some NGOs are interesting, but they are working in isolation and therefore success rate is not so satisfactory. If education is viewed as a totality of sub-sectors which contain the components of all sectors needing development then it may be more fruitful.
This paper identifies some problems of Bangladesh education system which constrains women in education and discusses some means of improving the educational status of women.
RHETORIC AND REALITY: A CASE OF PEOPLE’S PARTICIPATION IN DEUMAI IRRIGATION PROJECT OF NEPAL
by Durga P. Paudyal
In spite of the wide appreciation of people’s participation as a main element for sustainable development, an effective method for involving people in the development process has not been well thought out. A case study of Deumai Irrigation Project of Eastern Nepal demonstrates that some farmers have fallen in a serious loan-trap while trying to generate local resources to complete an irrigation canal through a bank loan. The paper suggests that there is a need to broaden the scope of participation in knowledge building at the local level using local intellectuals. If the local intellectuals are correctly encouraged and supported, they could help, among others, in building local knowledge, helping implementing agencies in pre-project work, and creating a local pressure group for making the implementing agencies more responsive.
COOPERATIVES AND COMMUNITIES IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: ONE OR MORE COOPERATIVES IN THE SAME VILLAGE? A PRE – PROPOSAL OF RESEARCH
by Dr. Yair Levi
ABSTRACT / RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The objective of the proposed research is to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the relationships between the cooperative and the local village community mainly in Third World countries, depending on whether the patter of organization is one of a single or more cooperatives in the same village. It is argued that such organizational choices are heavily influenced by socioeconomic, cultural and political background factors and may – in turn – have critical bearing on developmental local and extra-local issues. Through addressing a variety of situations, this research is expected to yield a typology of combinations enabling to trace possible links between the origin or a given organizational pattern, it~ experimentation and possible outcomes. These may be seen in terms of outputs in overall rural development or – as now on the increase in ex-socialist regimes – of the need for alternatives to previous organizational patterns.
PROPOSED PANEL SESSION TO ELABORATE ON THE THEME : RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR SUSTAINED RURAL DEVELOPMENT
by H. J. Allison, S. R. Southerland, C. E. Gordon
ABSTRACT / SUMMARY
One of the prerequisites for sustainable rural development is more reliance on renewable resources to satisfy the basic energy needs of village-based communities. This has been understood for many years. and to demonstrate the viability of this approach to rural communities throughout the world, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in the 1970s initiated three village energy center projects to provide examples of the type of energy conversion technology suitable for village communities. These three rural projects were located in Mexico, Senegal and Sri Lanka (Ref.), to provide demonstrations, respectively, for the Spanish, French and English speaking peoples of the developing world. Almost 20 years have elapsed since this progressive UNEP initiative was made and it is now time for a review of progress accomplished and a restating of reasonable goals in the light of technological and economical improvements to rural applications of renewable energy.
AN ENERGY CENTER IN SRI LANKA
by H. J. Allison, S. R. Southerland, C. E. Gordon
In April, 1975, the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Program issued a decision which addressed the problem of providing energy to remote villages in the developing world. The decision expressed the belief that existing technology could be used to harness renewable resources such as solar and wind energy, and the energy which can be derived from plant and animal matter as inputs to an energy system which could provide reliable power to such villages . As a result of that decision, Oklahoma State University was chosen to develop plans for a Rural Energy Center to be installed in Sri Lanka, which could be a model for future centers in Asian villages. This paper describes the system which has been devised, the constraints and economics associated with its development and the possible impact it might have in the future in developing nations of the world.
WOMEN HELPING WOMEN
by Kathryn Ogg
Role – playing a country in the drama of Model Organization of American States pulled into perspective my interest as a student at Old Dominion University and as a member of Tidewater Business & Professional Women’s Club. When I composed my proposal for an Interdisciplinary Studies Degree, I realized how my studies in History, Women Studies, and International Program reflected an awareness of women’s responsibility towards concerns of populations of our inter – dependant global village. This awareness pointed me towards an exploration of the role of a woman in an organization with international affiliations. Action in tow areas evolved: first, an effort to increase awareness of my Business & Professional Women’s Club members of our international role; and second, participation in the Old Dominion University Model Organization of American States of four years.