Volume 4 : Section VI – Philosophy of Development
THIRD WORLD VIEW OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT
by Dr. Dipak Malik
The Third World View of Rural Development presupposes a view from a universe, where injection of developmental instruments developed indigenously in Third World and incorporated from the first world due to essential inter-linkage between the two Worlds, have an accumulated profile in the Post Second World War World System. As a specific sample India gathered quit a bit of this experience as it was one of the decolonization momentum Creating Centre in Third World and my observation would be largely based on this specific universe-which inevitably has it’s universal face also.The one basis premise that the developmental injections have benefited only the wealthier 10 – 20 % of the pop. is part of general experience of Third World.
Since our objective in developmental sphere is to widen as much as possible and evolve a trickle up instead of trickle down approach so I would try to locate as to what are the basic obstacles in the use of the developmental instruments adopted till now.
CHANGE FROM THE INSIDE OUT
by Cindy Osmun
As I sit in America after being in Africa for the past two years, my mind travels back to life’s basic values. In the mad American Lifestyles, a core value is to have time, and there is always a need for more. Too often our lives are drawn to strive for that which we can never control and will always long to have. Time presses forward at its own pace for us until we die.
Yet in Africa a core value is unity, and this seems to be something on one can control either, and everyone wants it. Why is it that we long so much for what we cannot achieve or hold on to?
Despite these two core values which are as different as the cultures each resides in, every person on earth has a score values that is even deeper than the search for enough time or familial or racial unity. It is love; and surprisingly, we can control it, give or receive it, accept or reject it.
I propose that school counseling programs address this inner need for love. As a person learns that love is within his control, he will find peace and contentment.
THE USES OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
by J. Anthony Paredes
After agreeing to write this paper I was gripped by panic. At first, “the use of anthropology in community development” seemed an innocuous and pedestrian enough title, that surely I could whip something together. Then, I thought, I don’t know anything about community development. “What the dickens is community development?!” Wait. I clamed myself with sudden recollections. My first sort-of-professional job was as a “discussion leader” in, of all things, “community development “ with the University of New Mexico Peace Corp Training Centre in 1962. And, yeah, I continued with my self – assuring reverie, what have I got to worry about – in 1967 – 68 I was employed by the Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service under the most impressive sounding title, “Extension Specialist in Community Development.” Besides, even now I am in the “hot shot” anthropologist on the dissertation committee for a student over in the adult education department as those folks are wont to say. With all those credentials, certainly I must know something about community development. So, I put aside my apprehensions and procrastinated a little longer.
As the weeks went by I decided that maybe I should check up an see what other people thought community development was. My service on that dissertation committee reminded me that “community development” has a far- flung currency. Indeed, on reflection it occurred to me that “community development” even cropped up from time-to-time on that nightly news, especially as a catch-phrase in certain government and bureaucratic circles. As I thought about it, the meaning of “community development” became evermore uncertain. Given the wide usage of the term, I decided that surely in allied social science, “community development” must be a central, clearly defined concept.
BALANCE MULTI SECTOR DEVELOPMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT
by Prakash Golechha
Man has lived on this earth for at least 500,000 years but he did not begin to write until about 5,000 years ago. So previous history covers a very long time. Abut 6000 BC there came a great change in man’s way of life. He learned to grow crops. He used animals as a source of food and skins for clothing. He kept flocks of animals, built homes and soon began to make new things that were not found in nature. Clay could be molded into dishes and bowls. When it was backed it could be used for cooking food. Wool and flax could be spun into yarn. When men worked together villages and cities grew and from these beginnings all that we call civilization came into being. There has been gradual development so much so that he started thinking, speaking, writing, and exchanging thoughts and making new inventions for his use, may be good or bad.
A man in this world needs fresh air, fresh water, fresh food and sunlight to live a healthy life, mind and body. In old days the human being had no computers but it is know they could use the biggest natural computers “the brains” for remembering and knowing about far off. It was by means of extra supernatural power he could achieve my means of concentration and thinking. Both the physical and metal faculty was well developed. It is developed today also. The pattern of life is also same as before i.e. eating, drinking, enjoying, reproducing, living and dying. Only thing which has changed suddenly is industrialization and education of mass. In ancient days power and education was given to few. They has a thought of deserving and non – deserving. Those who deserved could achieve these powers. When ever this power went to non –deserving there was destruction. Average man could live peacefully and without botheration. Today due to advancement of knowledge every human being is indulged in day to day affairs. There is thinking of getting all the material sources but on the peace. The consumption of resources has greatly increased. Natural calamities, diseases, deforestation, desertification are increasing. The life is getting short. The man could live above hundred years in past days. Now it has gone down, concept of storage of currency and material has increased. There was little amount of currency before. The articles needed were exchanged by each other. Now ne purchase them by means of currency. Amount of currency with one is a symbol of status. Man keeps various things as a status symbol. The natural sources are utilized badly to maintain this status.
This has disturbed the environment and ecology.
There is a great discrepancy with in the status of life. Within US the per capita of top Fifth of population is 10 times that of bottom of 5th. Between developed and developing countries on the basis of purchasing power parties the ratio is approx. 7 to 1 and stress is given on economic growth to increase the quality of life for billions of poor across the globe.
VILLAGERS’ PARTICIPATION THROUGH INTERACTION WITH CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS AS A PREREQUISITE
by R. N. Mohapatra
Due to rapid growth of technological advancements, the people of the globe are fast coming closer. Equally advancing bio-technological factors have made the old concept of society and religion almost obsolete (except for vested interests on perverted context). Results of these exert great pressure on the globe while the disparity is mounting.
Therefore, for better protection of the globe and people in it, “Sustainable Development” is the only answer. As two thirds of the population of the globe live in villages of the third world countries under abject poverty conditions, “Sustainable Village Based Development ” is the basic need. Expenditure of hundreds of billions of dollars over decades on it, however, has hardly made any impact and the poverty continues to increase because villagers’ participation has not been enlisted on these suitably. To make the programs reasonably successful, the latter is a must through ‘interaction with the Central Governments’ as the prerequisite.
This paper deals with the need, taking India as an example, so as to be helpful while creating the Design Manual.
THE EMERGING PARADIGM SHIFT IN DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR FRAGILE ECO-SYSTEMS
by N. Vinod Chandra Menon
In most developing countries, increasing trends of desertification and marginalization of productive land due to increase in resource use intensities and consequent decline in soil fertility and agricultural productivity has made it imperative to search for appropriate interventions for subsistence agriculture has aggravated the gravity of poverty, unemployment and urban slums. The relationship between resource ownership, it’s efficient utilizations and distributions of gains is seen as a major grey area in the search for replicable models of sustainable village-based development in the third world. The failure beneficiary-oriented delivered development strategies initiated by the Government is compared against the holistic impact of empowered development strategies pursued by the voluntary agencies. In the context of equity, efficiency and sustainability, this paper proposes a design framework optimizing the efficiency of common property resource management systems with effective community participation.
SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : THE TRADE OFFS
by Larry Quinn
The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Developments (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 provided a blueprint for the fostering of sustainable industry while controlling and managing the potential pollution impacts induced by such development. Developing countries face a host of social, economics and environmental obstacles and constraints in their attempts to realize their goal of sustainable development. This paper reviews the successes and failure of the past relative to the attainment of this goal in the country of Nigeria, current planning to address problems previously created, and lessons learned for other developing nations.
Volume IV : Section VII – Additional Papers
A PROCESS APPROACH AS THE MEANS AND END OF RURAL COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS – THE NEPAL RESOCOURCE MANAGEMENT PROJECT’S EXPERIENCE
by Duman Thapa, Stephen Knisely
Rural development projects are often described in terms of products; that Forest User Groups will be formed, the standard of living will be raised, or there will be an increase in literacy rates. The actual process of how these “products” are realized usually rely on the participation, education and motivation of the target community. A project develops strategies of how these processes of community participation and education will be attained. Though these strategies are necessary to accomplishing the project objectives, they generally represent only the means. Few development projects seek to focus and name a process as the methodology and objective of its work; process as both the working strategy and goal of a project.
MEASURING THE CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN IN SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT
by Florence Abike Omodara
This paper presents a case study on the appropriateness of selecting a sample for baseline data from the participants of a village-based development project rather than from a third party. The results indicated that the more removed a sample from the source of information, the less accurate the vision of how the target group operates.
WHAT APPALACHIA HAS LEARNED ABOUT RURAL DEVELOPMENT
by Marie Eleanor Cirillo
Appalachia has been called America’s third world. It has been called America’s sacrifice area. This paper shares lessons learned and demonstrates how local people In The Clearfork Valley are the key to continuity, Integrity and sustainability for local development. It addresses the Importance of women In development and the need to Integrate environment with development.
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT NON GOVERNMENTAL ENDEAVORS AS EXEMPLIFIED BY SUSTAINABLE END OF HUNGER FOUNDATION (SEHUF) IN GHANA. WEST AFRICA
by Elizabeth Q. Akpalu
The sustainable End of Hunger Foundations, SERUF, is a specialized indigenous Ghanaian NGO which undertakes effective practical training courses for women and the youth in agriculture, food processing, preservation and handicrafts.
The Foundation recognize the fact that despite IMF and World Bank policies and reforms in Ghana, poverty is still pronounced. Ghana, like most African countries is an agricultural country where food production is mainly undertaken by women. Any intervention to eliminate hunger and minimize poverty should begin with women and the youth.
The presentation will highlight the practical training courses run for women leaders and efforts made to upgrade the indigenous food preservation and processing method of African women entrepreneurs through the introduction of new appropriate science-based technologies.
The Foundation has been experimenting with an integrated Agricultural project. The presentation will discuss the process used, constraints and lessons learnt for similar enterprises.
Presentation will further discuss village handicrafts and how its organization can benefit communities and empower them. The presentation will in addition discuss credit mobilization and how it empowers women in Ghana, citing the Women’s World Banking, Ghana, as a case in point.
DISASTERS AND DEVELOPMENT
by R. S. Stephenson, Paul Thompson
Disasters and development are closely linked in that disasters can both destroy development initiatives and create development opportunities. Development schemes can both increase and decrease vulnerability. A variety of forces which shape the relationship between vulnerability and the character of development activity will be reviewed.
To a large extent vulnerability derives from poverty. Poor people are more likely to live in vulnerable areas and lack the economic, educational and information resources that may reduce their vulnerability. Unaware of the options open to them for fulnerability reduction and having fewer assets to invest in resources, they may be unwilling to make any significant investment without clear and obvious benefits. Poorer countries are less likely to have adequate resources to implement and enforce appropriate building, construction and investment codes and laws.
Sustainable development offers people the opportunity to reduce their vulnerability to natural, environmental and technological disasters. There is a wide range of options for incorporating mitigation measures into sustainable development programs. Reviewing these options, the paper will offer an overview of the principles, techniques and actions that could be incorporated into sustainable development projects.
DEFINING SUSTAINABILITY: A CASE STUDY OF AN NGO AND COOPERATIVE IN COSTA RICA
by Connie L. McDermott
More than 9,000 people currently claim farms within and bordering the 61,295 has. of the Golfo Dulce Forest Reserve (GDFR), located on Costa Rica’s remote Osa Peninsula [Jones, 1991]. As a result, the seriously underfunded Costa Rican Forest Service (DGF) has been unable to halt rapid conversion of forest to agriculture within the reserve. An internationally funded Costa Rican NGO, BOSCOSA, began in 1988 to work with Peninsula farmer organizations on a system of sustainable forest management which recognized the local peoples’ claim to forest resources within the federal reserve.
This paper will focus on the farmers’ organization, Coopeagromuebles, the local group involved in sustainable land management which has evolved the farthest under the aid of BOSCOSA. It will be seen how this NGO’s failure to give sufficient weight to issues of economic, social and political sustainability has hindered Coopeagromuebles’ ability to achieve sustainable local forest management.
WOMEN AND SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF RURAL WOMEN IN NIGERIA
by Abeje A. Ujo
Sustainable development is “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (WCEO, 1987; par. 2.1; Vivian, 1991:4) Put differently “Sustainable development” is the process of improving the conditi)ns of living of those who are poor and disadvantaged (Vivian, 1991). Rural women in Nigeria live in a condition of poverty. Sustainable development as used in this paper refers to the various attempts made by government and non- governmental organisations to improve the living conditions of rural women.
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR VILLAGE-BASED ACTIVITIES – THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE
by Joseph G.M. Massaquoi
Although the role of indigenous knowledge in agriculture and health care has been recognized, its exploitation for the development of technology for small scale processes, particularly food processing have not been highlighted.
In this paper we present an analysis of two projects in Sierra Leone, West Africa, which were designed to introduce improved technology for village level activities. The two projects, one of which was to assist small scale salt producers and the other to develop and diffuse a Press technology for cassava processing, were not successful because of factors related to the failure to use indigenous knowledge in the technology development.
SAVE A FAMILY PLAN’S SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
by Mathew M, Mukkattu
A BRIEF HISTORY
Save A Family Plan (SAFP) was incepted in 1965 at St. Thomas University, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, by Msgr. Augustine Kandathil to help out five poor families in India. It has since blossomed into an international network now assisting more than 40,000 families and has raised more than $35 million over the years to assist the needy in the developing countries like India and Haiti. The plan was originally conceived as a relief work aimed at responding to the emergency needs of the poor families. However, over the past 27 years, the plan has undergone several changes, both in its objective and operational style. It has evolved into an action programme for development and assume the role of a catalyst in empowering the poor.
If emphasis was given to the collection and distribution of money in the first decade, it shifted to the conscientious implementation of viable, sustainable developmental projects in the second. The third decade, while remaining faithful to the above, tries to concentrate more and more on the human persons who are implementing the projects. It was learned from our experience that it is not enough to assist individuals to implement projects, but they need to unite forces as communities transforming the face of their village. For the same reason they need something more than funds; they need value education; they need dialogue; and they need to take charge of their lives and to help the whole village in which they live.
With this in mind SAFP started addressing the needs of the villagers through Integrated Village Development Programmes which enable the individuals and communities to move towards self-reliance. The programme envisages a ‘bottom-up’, participatory approach where village-level committees under the auspices of SAFP, facilitate public participation to ascertain the socioeconomic circumstances of those villagers who most need help. The local committees identify the pressing needs of the villagers and propose solutions to address those needs through economically viable and developmentally sustainable projects. Economic programmes are now being considered as entry points for accelerating the process of empowerment of the marginalized, irrespective of caste, creed and political affiliation. The target group is gradually made aware of their rights and duties as responsible citizens, and they are trained to acquire the capability required for becoming masters of their own destiny.
STRENGTHENING THE VILLAGE ENTREPRENEUR – A STRATEGY FOR DISSUADING URBAN MIGRATION
by Jide S. Olutimayin, Bedford A. Fubara
In the Schumpeterian theory, an entrepreneur is an innovator or a creator of a situation which did not originally exist for purposes of exploiting same benefits. Thus it covers the introduction of new goods which consumers are not yet familiar with; the introduction of a new method of production that is not yet tested by experience in the branch of manufacture concerned; the opening of a new market into which the particular branch of manufacture in the country in question has not previously entered, whether or not this market had existed before or the conquest of a new source of supply of raw materials. (Schumpeter, 1934 p. 66).
Who then is the village entrepreneur? The Village entrepreneur is first and foremost a small-scale businessman in the informal sector of an economy. Kavuluvulu (1990) refers to the term informal sector as involving small-scale income generating activities characterised by ease of entry and exit, minimal start up cost, reliance on family labour and acquisition of skills outside the formal education system. For the purpose of this work, these enterprises are located in the villages.
In many low and middle income countries of Africa, people migrate to the urban centres in search of paid-employment against the background assumption that large organizations in manufacturing or service organizations have unlimited spaces for employment. In all cases, governments of developing economies are concerned with finding appropriate strategy for developing employment outfits in the villages in order to discourage labour migration to urban centres.
In this paper we shall examine entrepreneurial activities that go on in the villages, the kind of persons engaged in them, and the constraints in such enterprises. We shall also post a method for developing and sustaining these activities in order to assist them to be able to provide employment to those who might otherwise migrate to the cities in search of employment. This model should postulate a new engine for the development of rural economies, especially in Africa.
IN THE IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY – RUSTING AWAY IN THE THIRD WORLD
by Julie Fisher
“Nothing grows from top down.” Atherton Martin
Robert M_____ first defined the “iron law of oligarchy” in 191_. Since that time, social scientists have generally supported the notion that membership organizations sooner or later evolve from democratic to oligarchic control. Oligarchy within a particular organization may be created either by established elites within the wider community or by one or more members (not necessarily community elites) who assume control at the expense of other members. Although organizational oligarchy mayor may not be linked to financial corruption, corruption is usually an indicator of oligarchy.
In this paper I propose to re-examine the iron law of oligarchy by using new evidence from the growing non-governmental movement in the Third World. This movement has been fueled by increases in the accessibility and supply of foreign assistance (voluntary as well as official), and by escalating demands for attention to human needs.
During the last two decades, two types of remarkably similar NODs (non-governmental organizations) have proliferated in Asia, Africa, and Latin America despite cultural and historical differences. Grassroots organizations (GROs) are locally-based membership groups that work to improve and develop their own communities. Although many have been promoted and stimulated by outsiders, GROs have also become more active on their own. Faced with the deterioration of their environment and increasing impoverishment, both traditional and newly created GROs are organizing horizontal networks with each other, usually based on geographical proximity.
Grassroots support organizations (GRSOs) , the second type of NOD, are intermediary organizations that work with and channel financial support to GROs. More than 30,000 indigenous GRSOs work with GROs in fields as diverse as enterprise development, health, women’s rights, population, and environment.2 GRSOs are usually staffed by paid professionals. although they may use middle class volunteers as well. Unlike GROs, which may make profits. GRSOs are non-profit organizations, although some are developing for-profit support activities. In contrast to GROs, which grew from traditional organizational roots. ORSOs began to emerge in the late 196Os, with the increased availability of foreign assistance. GRSOs. like GROs, are organizing authorization networks among themselves.
Some GRSOs, especially those organized by women, are membership organizations, but a majority are not. l Although discussions of the iron law of oligarchy usually pertain to membership organizations, non-membership organizations can be oligarchical and inter-organizational relationships between grassroots membership groups and voluntary service organizations can be based on or evolve towards increasing domination.
GROs, GRSOs and their networks, like the poverty/environment/ population crisis that engendered them, are having a real impact. In 1985, the Club of Rome estimated that “Southern NGOs” may involve as many as 60 million people in Asia, 25 million in Latin America, and 12 million in Africa.4 Since then, the environmental movement has grown rapidly and become involved in sustainable development, networking has accelerated, and more traditional voluntary organizations are undertaking grassroots support activities.
Is the remarkable promise of this organizational revolution likely to degenerate into self-serving behavior by the few at the expense of the many? What follows cannot fully answer the question posed in the title. Indeed, my initial answer to the question is “perhaps” or “maybe”. Although there is considerable evidence that many, if not most NGOs are self-consciously non-hierarchical in their behavior as well as their rhetoric, the very nature of the iron law of oligarchy is that it asserts itself gradually. Perhaps the real question is not whether people can create an alternative organizational culture, but whether it can be passed on or maintained over an extended period of time. This, in turn, will depend on the relationship between participation and socio-economic results, a topic covered in Fisher (1993).
Even a preliminary answer to the sustainability question depends on examining GROs and GRSOs as discrete organizations, and then looking at their relationships with each other. This paper deals with GR0s and then with their horizontal networks. An expanded forthcoming version of this paper also deals with GRSOs, their horizontal linkages with each other and the vertical ties between GRSOs and GROs. My working hypothesis, more fully developed in Fisher (forthcoming) is that horizontal and vertical linkages among NGOs tend to reinforce the generally democratic organizational culture and behavior of GROs and GRSOs, and thus fend off the iron law of oligarchy. This hypothesis recapitulates, at the inter-organizational level, Lipset, Coleman and Trow’s (1962) argument that multiple communication channels within a labor union reinforced democratic decision making.
INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY
by Rajendra T. Jadhav
Mankind has witnessed substantial development in various fields since the inception of civilization. The development in the field of Science and Technology has been very rapid, especially in the last 2 – 3 centuries with its attendant impact on society. Different communities reacted differently and at different rates to those developments. This is because of difference in the communal setup, social environment, political stability etc..
It has been observed that technologically advanced countries are the fastest in undertaking and absorbing technical developments. A stable political systems, literacy and high per capita income are other important factors decisive in adopting technological development. It is, therefore, observed that third world countries lag in the adoption of technological development. The social setup in the third world countries further hampers this adoption, primarily due to social taboos and customs.
The implementation of technical advance in third world countries, therefore, should be accompanied by widespread publicity through various media and a concerted effort to educate the rural masses towards the advantages of improved technologies vis-à-vis the existing taboos and cutoms. This work should be entrusted to NGO’s and other similar non – governmental organization rather then governmental channels as it is observed that the latter in third world countries work at abysmally low efficiencies, frequently riddled with corruption an nepotism. Further, sufficient financial assistance should be provided to these implementing organizations. Efficient mass motivational techniques should be used extensively to achieve this goal. This paper aims to analyze this phenomenon with reference to the Indian Subcontinent in general and India in particular.
PEOPLE’S PARTICIPATION IN VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
In this paper, an attempt is made to discuss the definition of participation by various researchers and to identify the commonalities among them. Various experiments, case studies from different parts of the developing countries including India show that it is possible to mobilize people to take part in the developmental programme. Few these cases from India are analyzed to identify the factors which influenced participation and also to study the methods adopted by the agencies to bring about participation. Based on the analysis of the cases and also the empirical studies of this author on participation, possible strategies have been suggested to bring about effective people’s participation.
Further, it is necessary to understand the “person” who is the main actor in the development process. The inherent quality of human “gregariousness” should be exploited to bring about effective participation. Thus the backbone of participation lies in the group dynamics and the behaviour of the individual in a group situation. This paper, also discusses the psychological/ behavioral aspects of participation.
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
by Mohini Mathur
Women in Development approach emphasizes that women constitute an untapped source for economic and social development. Forming roughly half the global population, women are a reservoir of talent, qualitatively underexposed and underutilized. Women were the targets of welfare policies. They need to become crucial agents of development.
Since men’s and women’s lives are structured substantially in different ways development policies and programmes also affect them differently. If emancipation has sidetracked woman in the urban areas, the plight of the rural woman is worse, even though she is becoming aware of her rights.
For example, Chipko (literally clinging) movement in India had each woman, aware of her rights, in a particular village embrace a tree to prevent denuding the precious forests.
- Database on women is the need of any planned programme for them.
- Due recognition to their potential at micro and macro levels, initially by following a policy of reservations.
- Implementation of the emergent concept of women as complementary to men in all field of human endeavor.
MODEL FOR LOCAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS ESTABLISHED IN SOMALIA BY TEMA-MAR INC. TO ASSIST DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN VILLAGES IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL REGION OF THE COUNTRY
by Dr. Mohamed Ahmed Gilao
A description is given of models for local support systems started up by TEMA-MAR in the 1980′ s in Somalia during the emergency created by the sudden influx of refugees from the Ogaden region in Ethiopia.
The need for concrete logistical support in villages led the NGOs to take a specific interest in the various programs created by TEMA-MAR, such as the Energy Resort Services, or “ERS”, and “APROS & PARTNERS”, an association of Somali professionals, and finally “CART”, the Advanced Center for Rural Technology.
BANGLADESH RURAL WOMEN VOICE SUSTAINABLE FUTURE THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN MEDIA-ALTERNATIVE (a)
by Saleem Samad, Ashoka Fellow
The central question this paper explores is whether there is a need for an alternative media to facilitate women at the grassroots to participate in public policy debate in order to democratize development planning. The paper describes a methodology on media-alternative by, for and of the rural women. It argues both modern and traditional communication media being used by media practitioners to bring about social Changes.
The paper provides an overview of the dimensions of poverty and reviews the political, development policy and human rights environment in the backdrop of aid conditionalities for an aid-dependent country, Bangladesh. The paper concludes that without change in the political and policy context, the needs of the poor will remain peripheral to the key development strategy for achieving sustainable future.
SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF VOLUNTARY AGENCIES IN CREATING AWARENESS AND INVOLVEMENT
by Dr. Lallan Prasad
ABSTRACT/ VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES IN INDIA
“Mother India lives in village” said famous Hindi poet Sumitranandan Pant. Life has blossomed in all its colors and manifestations in villages which have been the abodes of some of the finest value, art, music, paintings, festivals, ritual and noble traditions from time immemorial.
Indian economy is still largely village based. Agriculture contributes 31% of GDP. More than 70% of people live in Village.. But the village community has not been the major beneficiary of economic planning in India which has been based primarily on Russian model. Urban sector has prospered at the cost of rural economy. Industrialization failed to have the trickle down effect. The rural development programmes were initiated in Five Year Plans since early 1950’s (Annexure) Most of these programmes were very well designed and if implemented properly who would have helped village community to usher in an era of better living. But the goals are far from being achieved. The poorest of the poor are still living in rural India. Except in few states where Green Revolution has brought prosperity villages in other part of the country remain underdeveloped. Marginal farmers, landless laborers and people belonging to schedule caste, tribes, adivasies and backward classes are the worst sufferers. The benefits under the programmes of rural development do not reach the most needy in many cases. It is cornered by the relatively well to do in connivance with the officials. The administration to make the benefits reach over 60 million households below the poverty line is inadequate. The project planning and implementation have been centralized. People’s participation in village development schemes has been lacking. The more resourceful are better informed, while the needy ones know little about the benefits planned for them.
DEFINING PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMMUNITY-BASED RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN PASTORAL SOCIETIES
by Tom Mann, Vic Squires
Case studies of rangeland development in Algeria, Pakistan and Australia are reviewed and lessons noted, highlighting the inadequacies of approaches adopted.
For sustainable resource development, however, challenging issues still remain for those involved in managing rangelands. Failure to appreciate the differences in perception by villagers of micro and macro environmental scale problems is an example.
Challenges are discussed and guidelines given for the kind of base data required to define problems and opportunities and perhaps find a way around the apparent impasse.
DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH VILLAGER PARTICIPATION – A MALAYSIAN CASE
by Saidin The, Mazanah Muhamad, Derek Shepherd, Mohammad Salleh, Wan Fauziah, Wan Yusoff
An inquiry to study the development of a village through active participation of the villagers themselves was carried out in 1991-1992 in Village of Perlok, State of Pahang, Malaysia. The study utilized field observation, structured interview and document analysis. The investigation revealed that Perlok had developed through establishment and self- management of social and economic institutions with support in the form of infrastructures, inputs and guidance from development agencies. With effective leadership and active community participation, it is foreseen that Perlok will continue to grow parallel to Malaysia’s development.
INLAND, WARM WATER FISHERIES, BUI AND DONGA – MANTUNG DIVISIONS, NORTH WEST PROVINCE, CAMEROON, 1979 AND 1980
by Richard Stephen Fox
Six inland, warm water, fisheries extension agents in a high plateau grassland area (580 km ^2 / agent), assisted fish farmers in pond polyculture (Oreochromis niloticus, T. nigra, T. macrochir, T. melanoplura, T. spp., Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, Cyprinus carpio) to produce table fish (32 kg/ha/yr) for an additional source of high protein and income (556, 000 cfa) ($2,471. 00) in the rural sector. To facilitate the inland fisheries program, fish farmer cooperatives (14) were formed to meet monthly to advise and encourage fish farmers (245).
WHAT THE PEOPLE’S TREATIES SAY ABOUT DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
by Kathryn W. Hansen
The People’s Treaties were written by NGO representatives from around the world and address the issues of environment and development. They are the Culmination of two years of work leading up to the Earth Summit and represent a vision for the possible in development work. In this paper, the evolution of the Treaties is reviewed, and the basic principles expressed in them examined. Some practical suggestions along with precautions for development projects are also enumerated. Development programs need to be cognizant of the Treaties and the principles they delineate. The implications they hold for development work is important because they express the views of a significant group of practitioners working on the community level.
by Thierry Van Cauwenberg
There is often a situation of deep misunderstanding between development organizations and people concerned by the projects.
People are rarely the initiators, but only included in a large program, where other persons think that it will be good for them to do this, and to get that.
My goal is not to say that program makers don’t know their job; they are a global vision authorizing a better action. But what we forget is that what villagers need (following our conception) and what they want could be very different. They could prefer a radio or a football stadium, more than drinking water supply or pharmacy boxes.
TOWARDS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT; A STUDY OF WEST-YAGBA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KOGI STATE IN NIGERIA (1950 – 1992)
by Dr. Jide Olutimayin
West-Yagba Local Government area in the middle-belt of Nigeria had come of age in the years through many political changes. In the 1940’s it had its own administrative powers, losing it between 1966 and 1989, but gaining it back in 1991 – a series of changing fortunes. In terms of development it is only in the last two or three years that one can really report or substantiate a reasonable level of village/community development. Why did it take so long?
In the study of the development of this community, certain cardinal issue’s like schools and colleges; health clinics; rural electrification; low-level industries; and commercial banks. amongst others, were examined at intervals of ten years, noting their significant contributions to the community. The West-Yagba community is noted for its sense of common bond and identity; and as an entity, it upholds its rights and obligations with reference to its development. This, perhaps, explains the growth in spontaneous community action and pressure groups (that often protested) against changes that affect them but without consultations with them. In some instances, some offer of local industries by the state government were turned down by individual villages in the community.
The major results of the study were identifications of:
- the community’s perception of its type of development;
- the problems and realities of collaboration between donors of developmental ingredients and the community;
- methods of assessing available developmental efforts, and the needs of the community;
- strategies for encouraging/strengthening the spirit of self-help in the community.
- ingredients for sustaining the development(s).
SWANIRVAR BANGLADESH: WHAT IT STANDS FOR? ITS MESSAGES
by Salah Uddin Ahmad
Swanirvar Bangladesh (SB) literally means: self – reliant Bangladesh and self – sufficient to stand on it’s own legs. Mr. Mahboob Ul Alam Ghashi, A very eminent Member of the erstwhile Pakistan Foreign Service, who served in Peking, Tokyo and Washington for many years, got fed up, begging rice, wheat, foreign aid etc. at every turn of calamity, cyclone, floods, etc, in what was then known as East Pakistan, now Independent Sovereign Bangladesh since 1971. Late Mr. Chashi, as he is known popularly, died in September 1983. He resigned from PFS and set up his work camp in about 25 kilometers from his village home ______________________ near Chittagong and started all sorts of well-meaning, welfare / social activities like setting up night schools, buildings, small bamboo bridges, maintaining village road, etc. removal of literacy all kinds of pep talks about family planning, grow more food, income generation and not to while away their time as they now belonged to Sonal Bangal or Golden Bangal. Some youngster and medium of elderly people joined him, clapping their hands or sometimes shed tears, but many, if not most of them eventually got disillusioned and sooner or later they disappeared. Who would like to listen to him? As half the villagers do not have half – an – acre of land to themselves and do not have any source of income generation either from Govt. or private job, working in the mill or workshop; the country is yet to be substantially industrialized ; some mills that are operating are not doing too well. So most of these villagers which means 85% to 90% of the total population out of 115 millions are without any real or viable source of income. Nearly all of them are unemployed or semi-employed getting some seasonal jobs at the time of sowing and harvesting. So, many, if not most of the villagers, have either an option to starve or go out here and there for begging or for pilfering from their neighbors who are also not doing too well; agriculture is in a state of decay, in a broad sense; though in last quarter of a century rice, wheat, paddy and cereal production have nearly doubled from nearly 10 million to nearly 80 million tons in 1992 – 93; but the major benefit goes to 10 to 15% of the upper landed class, and the bulk of the people got occasional employment at best or begging, pilfering including social vices, not excluding prostitutions who have nothing else to sell, offer or produce for want of capital or other landed resource.
by Neeraj Gupta
In the International Scenario India still presents a picture of poverty, backwardness, population explosion, Techno Superior projects dotted here and there, fast life buzzing metropolis and what not. In fact India as a country is a mini world in itself. Everything present in the world is present in India- Among the physical features if there are Alps in Europe we have snow clad himalayas. If there is Sahara desert in Africa, we have a Thar desert here, The flora and fauna abounding in the world can be found here. Its rich natural resources can match, With Similar resources out side, not only this you name the problems in the world and India has it. Thus India is a match for the whole world.
Today the race to save the earth has caught on, whoever can has joined the marathon, and how could India be left behind. Infact today saving environment has become a global problem and the depleting Ozone layer is the burning issue which cannot be ignored by anyone living on this planet.
SUSTAINABILITY Of FOOD AID BASED DEVELOPMENT APPROACH FOR POOR VILLAGE WOMEN IN BANGLADESH
by M. Alimullah Miyan
Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries in the world beset with problems of low economic growth, high population growth rate, low per- capita income, severe unemployment specially among women and frequent natural disasters. There is a widespread poverty, with 50 out of 110 million people reported to be living below the poverty line. Among them, the rural women constitute the most disadvantaged group. Since mid 1970s, food aid in various forms and sources have been provided primarily to alleviate hunger, but in recent times to act as development catalyst.
A substantial portion of the food aid has been specifically targeted to poor women in the rural areas under different programs of the government and non – government organizations. Most programs sought to realign them from welfare relief to development to promote self reliance of women. This has been attempted by supplementing food aid with” comprehensive package of productivity and consciousness enhancing social and economic outputs. The underlying hypotheses is that the development package will lead to economic and social self reliance on a sustainable basis, with- standing the aggregative social and economic constraints.
The paper examines the issues relating to socia-economic factors hindering access of poor rural women to education, training, employment, credit, extension services; institutional mechanisms for food aid and other input provision, human resources development as a poverty alleviation strategy and the like issues. The social, religious and institutional barrier’s to desegregation in occupation, confidence and leadership development, education, exposure and empowerment of women and access to resources, technology, approach and ideas have been discussed. The paper dealt with the exploration of an alternative concept to use food aid as an instrument of sustained development of poor women with provision of development services involving savings, credit, functional education, training in income generating activities, health and nutrition information, cooperative efforts, direct participation in activity planning and implementation, decentralization, boosting up at psychological, social, consciousness and leadership levels of target women. The alternative scheme underscores some of the elements of village based development paradigm but misses out on a number of issues for integrated development. There is a good potential of combining food aid inputs in integrated village based development for self reliance of poor village women.
ATTITUDES TO POLICY INTEGRATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF NEPAL
by Bhanu R. Neupane
The thrust on a sustainable approach to development planning has been geared to correct the course of conventional planning through proper inclusion of ecological considerations. The process of policy integration entails a radical departure from the present course of development planning and demands development partners’ strong adherence to and a convergent perception of the principles of sustainability. Nepal, at the verge of radical egress of sustainable village-based development, requires first-hand information pertaining to this issue.
To answer the aforementioned quest for integration of policies, Gale’s model was adopted with proper modification and amendments. A sample survey carried out in two Village Development Committee areas of the lower Daraundi watershed, complemented by proper scrutiny of local level implementers, academic and policy-level sector experts rendered strong to moderate adherence of development partners to the issue of sustainability and detected room for improvements whereby the integration of policies could be facilitated. It also ascertained that the outlook of the sectors are not similar with a view to the perceived integration of policies through reorientation. Although it became evident from the research findings that perfect realization of sustainability is improbable, there exists sufficient momentum through which effective mitigative measures can be designed to increase the level of adherence and narrow down the existing gap between the sectors involved in the arena of development.
THE IMPACT OF WOMEN’S EQUALITY RIGHT ON DEVELOPMENT IN BOTSWANA
by Susan M. Tatten
As we move towards the twenty – first century increasingly strained natural economic resources and rapid population growth, the global challenge we face is not to continue to exploit the world’s dwindling reserves but to conserve those we presently possess. One of the most effective means for overcoming poverty in the world is to harness and utilize the vast human resource potential currently at our disposal. Most of the world, however, has been underutilizing over one half of its population to the obvious detriment of our global society. While women are charged with the sustenance of their nations, they are in the vast majority of cases denied full participation in the development process.
Today, no country can afford not to promote the development and equality of its women – both in form and in practice. On the African continent, in particular, it is women who have kept their societies alive through their tireless efforts at agriculture and family stability despite tumultuous changes within their countries. A look at one such country, the nation of Botswana, will provide a lens through which women’s changing roles may be viewed by political and social institutions in Africa today.
ROLE OF NGO’S AND PVO’S IN DEVELOPING RURAL BASED PRIVATE ENTRIES
by Kapil Dev Ghimire
The authors describe a pilot program developed and implemented jointly between SBPpl and CECI-Asia enabling NGOs’ and PVOs’ based in non-urban locations to develop rural based private enterprises. The MECDs program delivered services to entrepreneurs running and willing to start micro enterprises.
The specific focus of the paper will be on the roles of the NGOs and PVOs in the development of rural based economies and how these organizations’ capabilities can be developed to implement the MECD program.
Competency based economic development of rural sectors is one of the major developmental interventions whereby more than 90% of the total population can be reached. The local NGOs and PVOs are identified as cost effective, sustainable and effective intermediaries for rural developmental activities.
The Participatory Rural Appraisal methodology is used to study the geographical area and local NGOs and PVOs for the program. Then a Program Planning and Appreciation
Workshop is conducted for the executive and general members of the participating NGOs and PVOs. With a view to developing organizational management, a Goal Oriented Project Planning Workshop is conducted for each of the NGOs and PVOs.
This is followed by the Training of Trainers programs delivered to volunteer members of these organizations for the implementation of the MECD program in their respective areas. The program includes Micro Enterprise Creation training for potential entrepreneurs; Micro Enterprise Assistance training for the entrepreneurs running micro enterprises; Savings and Credit Group Formation training for both the potential and existing entrepreneurs and technical skills, marketing network and credit services for the beneficiaries of the program. The program also envisages a system of follow-up and monitoring of the beneficiaries to achieve an optimal output of the resources used.
These organizations are further provided inputs on organizational management capability building through a series of consultations and training. With a view to capitalizing the experiences gained in the program, the organizations conduct Program Appreciation Workshops for the local developmental institutions.
The paper also presents the achievements made and conclusions drawn from implementation of the program by the three NGOs based in rural areas of Nepal. In addition, the paper also makes reference to the overall programs conducted by SBPP.
POTENTIALS AND PLANS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
by Krishna Sankar Raman
World Commission on Environment and Development 1987, specified the importance of the concept of sustainability. In general “the concern is that our current organization of society and modes of product and consumption are not sustainable. We need a transformation so that”… the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Poverty is the major problem of our time, along with the environmental threats which weigh heavily on our planet and on the future of humanity. However unreliable the statistics are in so complicated a domain, they do nevertheless give some idea of the extent of the problem. According to UNDP (1991), the ratio between the income of the richest 20% of the population and that of the poorest 20% went from 30 to 1 in 1960 to 59 to 1 in 1989. Today the number of the very poor is well over a billion. To be precise, one person in four lives a sub-human existence.
Democracy may well be, if not the key to development, atleast the only form of political rule capable of attenuating human misery. And promoting democracy, reducing poverty and preserving the future of the planet are undoubtedly three aspects of a single problem.
AN APPROACH TO TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN RURAL SHELTER FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
by Shrashtant Patara, B. Arch.
Housing activity can contribute to sustainable development if appropriate technological alternatives are made available to people through village based micro-enterprises.
In the past, Government, market and non-formal delivery mechanisms have failed to improve shelter conditions and create livelihoods. This can change if we initiate processes that convert people’s needs into demand and technical potential into enterprise based supply. Institutional networks and financial measures are required to identify, develop and disseminate technology options that are economically viable and ecologically sustainable.
Organizations with sustainable development objectives and a capacity for innovation, production and marketing have a key role to play in this process of technological change.
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN WOMEN: FERTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT
by Tammie J. Tischler
This paper argues from a woman-centered perspective that persistence of high total fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa can be explained by examining the factors in the cultural, socioeconomic and political dimensions of social life. First, by examining the cultural dimension, this paper argues the arbitrary boundary between the private and public spheres of life shapes women’s experiences by placing the reproductive role central to their existence and simultaneously oppresses their sexuality. Next, by examining the socioeconomic dimension, this paper argues that the scarcity of resources, largely reserved for men, legitimates the subordinated status of women in their ,micro relationships perpetuating high total fertility rates. Then, by examining the political dimension, this paper argues the racist and sexist population policy decisions made by nation/state governments profoundly affects women’s choices. When the factors in these three dimensions are considered in a holistic model they explain the persistence of high total fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa and the likelihood they will continue.
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT AND 18-DTP IN BANGLADESH
by Nazmunnessa Mahtab
The 18-DTP is a “package” type project whose objectives are to combine rehabilitation, extension and operation of water supply, drainage and sanitation facilities and health education activities. While safe water and sanitation facilities are important health requirements for all, women are in need of them because they are the principal managers of domestic water needs and family health care. On the other hand, due to constraints of extreme poverty the poorer households are not able to afford even subsidized community tube wells and low cost latrines.
The 18-DTP has four components focusing on WID; for example, in the water supply, sanitation and drainage system women will be caretakers of hand tube wells, latrine producers and construction workers, and in health education they will be promoters, motivators, educators and beneficiaries.
For 18-DTP, WID means the increased participation and involvement within each specified component of the project, aiming at skill development, income generation and gender awareness.
This paper outlines the 18-DTP model in Bangladesh and focuses on the WID components of the project. It is divided into three main sections.
- Section one presents a brief background of the 18-DTP in Bangladesh.
- Section two deals with Women in Development and the policy of Government of Bangladesh in this context and
- Section three emphasis on 18-DTP Women’s Programme.
LOCAL PARTICIPATION AND THE VILLAGE SAVINGS AND CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS (VISACAs) IN THE GAMBIA
by Korotoumou Ouattara, Douglas H. Graham, Carlos E. Cuevas
The paper documents the unusual performance of the Village Savings and Credit Associations (VISACAs) in The Gambia (West Africa). Launched in 1988 as a pilot project in The Gambia, the Primary objective of the VISACAs (six in total) is to collect local savings and make loans to village members.
Villagers controlled their own associations from the beginning. Internal regulations of VISACAs are discussed and established at a general assembly of all villagers who decide upon membership conditions, interest rates for deposits and loans, and management procedures.
Lending is an important part of the VISACAs’ operation. Each VISACA has a management committee of villagers whose responsibilities include evaluating and granting loans. Cashiers are selected amongst villagers to carry bookkeeping responsibilities.
External donors’ involvement in the VISACAs has been low key to preserve the identity of the VISA CAs which remain today the only viable, village-based savings and credit movement in The Gambia.
FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION BY NGOs IN THE GAMBIA: A COMPLEMENT OR A SUBSTITUTE FOR INDIGENOUS SELF·HELP VILLAGE GROUPS?
by Geetha Nagarajan, Richard L. Meyer, Douglas H. Graham
Indigenous self-help groups need to develop in their own tempo, follow their own rules and preserve their own cultural identity. Any outside interference into them might only work counterproductively — Frits Bouman.
This paper analyzes financial intermediation of two types of NGOs and assesses their complementarity or substitutability for the functions previously performed by indigenous self-help village groups (kafos) in The Gambia. The emergence of NGOs providing village level services is found to be only a partial substitute for the financial functions traditionally performed by these indigenous village groups. Institutional duality is, therefore, observed due to the coexistence of indigenous village groups alongside the NGOs providing multiple services demanded by villagers. The complementarity or substitutability of NGOs for kafos is largely determined by their institutional design for the provision of financial services. NGO programs that provide financial services based on lessons learned from kafos tend to complement rather than substitute for the kafos. The villagers seem better served this way. These findings have implications for any interventions which disrupt but only partially substitute for traditional village arrangements and institutions.
COOPERATIVES AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT: NONE, ONLY ONE, MORE THAN ONE IN THE SAME VILLAGE!
by Yair Levi
The objective of this paper is to discuss the issue of the cooperative(s) and the local village community in Third World countries. Situations of no-cooperatives, one cooperative or more than one in the same village will be briefly presented and analyzed in the light of their respective pros and cons regarding internal and extra-local development issues. It is argued that the issue is one of a twofold compatibility: 1) between the cooperative and “local cultural and spatial dimension, and 2) between the cooperatives and related organizations – mainly voluntary – emerging and operating in the same village. This paper aims to stimulate debate and to provide the ground for a systematic research on the topic under consideration.
A CRITIQUE ON THE PAPER ENTITLED.. “ A MODEL AND PILOT PROJECT FOR THIRD WORL VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT”
by Dr G. N. Reddy, S Baldwin Raju
We congratulate Dr Albertson and his associates in advocating a simple, practicable and replicable model for sustainable village based development for accelerating the Third World Development. The suggested frame work through 5 major tasks are essential and critical for promoting participatory, integrated and sustainable development. However, we like to offer the following comments and suggestions for enhancing the applicability of the frame work.
NATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE – BASED DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF BANGLADESH
by Shaikh Magsood Ali
Bangladesh, a small country (143,998 sq.Km) with a large population (111.4 million, 1992) and a low level of per capita income ($ 200 in 1992) has about 80% of its people living in the rural areas. Even after two decades of development planning (1973-93), agriculture accounts for about 38% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and about 60% of the employment. The industrial base is small – about 14% of the GDP – only half of which originates in the large scale manufacturing sector. Until recently, large scale industries were mainly owned by the public sector. With the increase in their losses (to ,about Taka 20,000 million) per annum in the public sector by 1991), the pressure to hand them over to the private sector increased particularly after 1985-86 when Bangladesh adopted formally its current structural adjustment programme, the challenges before it which now are:
- To raise the growth rate of the economy from around 3.5% (average between the last two decades, 1973-92) to above 5% of the GDP.
- Substantially alleviate poverty which has increased from around 30% in the 1960s to around 48% of the total population in the early 19905.
With the restoration of democracy in Bangladesh interest in measurement of poverty and in the process poverty can be alleviated, have greatly increased.