A MODEL AND PILOT PROJECT FOR THIRD-WORLD VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT
by Maurice L . Albertson, Edwin F . Shinn , Miriam M. Shinn
Two – thirds of the earth’s population (more than 3 billion people) live in the villages of the Third World. The World Bank (1992) estimates that 1.1 billion of these people are living at or below the poverty level. While billions of dollars have been invested in these countries as gifts or as loans, for the most part, only the wealthier 10-20% of the population have benefitted. A significant number of independent non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private voluntary organizations (PVOs), however, have successfully developed and demonstrated, in isolated cases, techniques for helping third-world villages. In several cases, a basic unit of 25-40 villages has been successfully used to mobilize and access resources. These techniques have been studied and form the basis of a Model for Third-World Development. This model is proposed as a foundation for a Pilot Project involving one million people–with the hope of evolving procedures and techniques for replicating the project throughout the Third World.
ROLE OF NGO’s AND PVO’s IN SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT
by K. Venugopal
Non-Governmental Organizations are by sheer necessity and their concerns for the rural, oppressed poor, the major change agents in the villages in India today. The Governments have resigned themselves to mainly administering and spending their financial allocations. Even this has been grossly affected by corruption, nepotism and political considerations. The poor have nowhere else to go but to the NGO’s and the peoples organization which they have assisted to be setup. It is imperative now that the NGO’s and the people’s organizations forge themselves into an
The village is the principal social unit and the smallest administrative unit in India. Invincible alliance so that people’s power can be strengthened and the people themselves will be able to secure their rights and privileges. The first step would be to get urgently implemented the land reforms legislations, and strengthen cooperatives as people’s movement. Further there must be a powerful network of people organizations, Panchayats and cooperatives which the NGO’s can help to establish and strengthen. These institutions can together make possible a new era of village-based development which will be more just, honorable, equal and human.
Decades of centralized and induced urban bias in planning had led to unjust neglect and indifference to rural and village – based development.
MICHAEL LIPTON, in his book Why Poor People Stay Poor, has made a classic observation relating to the urban bias in development: ‘The most important class conflict in the poor countries of the world today is not between labor and capital. Nor is it between foreign and national interests. It is between the rural classes and the urban classes. The rural sector contains most of the poverty and most of the low-cost sources of potential advance; but the urban sector contains most of the articulateness, organization and power….. Resource allocations with in the city and village as well as between them reflect urban priorities rather than equity or efficiency. The damage has been increased by misguided ideological imports … and by the town’s success in buying off part of the rural elite, thus transferring most of the costs of the process to the rural poor”. (Lipton, 1982, Page 13). (lA)
Individual political parties, coalitions of political parties, politicians, bureaucrats, had all failed collectively as well, to deliver the promises of fundamental rights and those in the Directive Principles of State Policy, which had been given as sacred rights to the people of India.
This particular realization had forced even the youngest Prime Minister, late Shri. Rajiv Gandhi, who had dreamt of leading the nation into the 21st century, to accept failure and disbelief in the present political, economic, social structures, primarily on its capacity to bring about village based development through rural reconstruction and transformation. He was thus forced to ICSVBD declare that people’s power alone will be able to secure justice-social, economic and political-especially for the socially, economically backward, oppressed rural poor.
The irony of the situation was that, even though the NGO’s had been emphasizing the imperative need for consolidation of people’s power for over two decades, through its programmes in villages, utilizing the process of conscientisation, sensitization, it took about a decade of political and public life even for late Rajiv Gandhi to realize the obvious importance of people’s power.
Significant work has been done by NGO’s all over the country towards building people’s power, amidst valiant struggles, great sacrifices, threats to organizational and personal life and existence.
This paper focuses on these noteworthy interventions by NGO’s in the fields of human development, economic and social development as related to sustainable village-based development.
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
by Yeshimebet Gemeda
Based on first-hand information I gathered while working with rural women, my paper will attempt to show that:
- In Africa and in other Third World countries, Women carry the main burden of work in development and have a lot of experience in human and agricultural development;
- Women’s role has not yet been recognized in society;
The paper further discusses women’s issues in development strategies in designing appropriate projects that involve and benefit women.
Focus will be made on gender issues in Ethiopian context and some attempts made by Agri-Service Ethiopia. To alleviate some of Women’s social, economic and psychological problems in our development sites.
Finally, it attempts to forward some recommendations for development planners and decision makers of the Third World countries.
COMMUNITY BANKING: A MODEL or INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICAN CONTEXT
by Firimoni R. Banugire
Peoples Development Trust (PEDET) is a community enterprise designed to provide community banking services to about 400,000 people of Rukungiri District in Uganda. PEDET is owned and managed by members as a self-help financial institution for community based agro-industrial development projects. Its dual roles of financial intermediation and knowledge intermediation are carried out through a participatory organization framework whereby members play a Key role in decision making concerning choice of community projects, credit management, deposit mobilization, training and extension and management services.
The concepts of community enterprise and community banking as applicable in African context are outlined in section 2 after presenting the assumptions about the social-economic framework in: section 1. The dual roles of knowledge and financial intermediation are examined as a foundation for integrated rural development programmes. Section 4 describes in details the character and progress of the PEDET model of community banking in Rukungiri District. Lastly implications for micro-economic management are spelled out.
ROLE OF NGO IN SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT – A CASE OF PANI PANCHAYAT
by Prasad Rasal
Pani Panchayat – works only for a group of farmers. Projects are prepared with an understanding that sharing of water will be equitable and limited to 1 hect. per family and for seasonal crops only. A landless person in the group shall also have right for water. 1230 hect. (3075 acres) have been brought under protective irrigation from 26 different villages in Maharashtra state of India. Equitable distribution of benefits, small groups and equal ownership over community resources are the key factors in success of Pani Panchayats.
REDUCING RURAL POVERTY – A REQUIREMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT
by D. Muthukuharana KUHARANA
According to the accepted reports, nearly one billion people in the world live in absolute poverty. Of this, approximately 800 live in Asia. These people are unable to meet their basic human needs for food, clothing, shelter and health care. This poverty has never been chosen by them nor has been one that they can easily escape. How does poverty
survive? Where does it thrive? These are some questions that have to be answered by modern day researchers and experts who are involved in poverty alleviation and village development. The present world is consisted of two layers. The World of the Haves and the World of the Have Nots. Unison between these 2 layers has to be formed. The mechanisms that have been studied by the Writer are placed in this paper to achieve the above objective. As a solution to this problem, the Writer proposes a project to be launched to work out the following 3 models –
(a) Banking Finance as a strategic tool
(b) Linkages of NGOs and Banks to deliver necessary financial assistance
(c) Develop a conceptual framework for village development embodying economic, technical & social aspects.
CLIENTELISTIC ASSOCIATIONS AS A HINDRANCE TO THE DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS
by Jaehen C. Nett , Lie. Rer. Pol.
In the theory of socio-economic development, the importance of social and economic institutions, especially voluntary associations of different types, has been recognized already long ago. However, little attention has been paid to the particular internal structures of associations of different kinds and their relevance for the developmental process. Deficiencies of the administrative-bureaucratic and legal institutions of a society hamper the process of transformation from a stage where parochial relations of exchange are prevailing to another where they get increasingly substituted by impersonal contractual relations. This situation negatively influences the effectiveness of associations with respect to their developmental functions. Especially voluntary associations that claim to provide collective goods and accordingly should fulfill important intermediary functions in the public interest degenerate into clientelistic associations with particularistic goals.
COMMUNICATION AND EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT
by Fosuaba A Mensah Banahene
The failure of development efforts to significantly achieve its purpose among the village people around the world could be partly attributed to the ineffective way the message of development is presented. Communication is a vital element in any development enterprise and, therefore, development practitioners or change agents should adopt a more congenial interactive posture when bringing the development message to village people. Importantly, the cultural patterns of life in the village should be studied seriously so that people engaged in development industry would not plane against the grain.
But before that development practitioners should equip themselves with the authentic understanding of what development means and the effective way of assessing whether development has succeeded or otherwise.
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
by Thomas P. Verghese
World over the increasing participation of women in the workforce has been one of the notable characteristics of the last two decades. . Much is being said, done and planned not only to sustain this trend but to enhance it further. Economists, politicians, sociologists and psychologists have all supported this movement on different accounts and rationale. The increased participation is not only quantitative but implies women’s entry into non-traditional, non-conventional areas of work; one of them being corporate leadership. The nineties are expected to see women making a dent in the managerial world in a major way. One of the ten ‘megatrends-2000’ is the decade of women in leadership. According to the author Naisbitt and Aburdene, “To be a leader in business today it is no longer an advantage to have been socialized as a male” because “outside the military management model men and women are equally capable of inspiring commitment and bringing out the best in people.”
Women plays vital role in development. Development in terms of improving the lives of people who are living under poverty conditions. Development refers not only things that can be reduced to capital accumulation, economic growth and economic restructuring but also refers to development of human beings, to every man and every woman, . to the whole man and the whole ‘woman. It is a human experience synonymous with fulfillment of individual, mental, emotional and physical potential ties. Development is the unfolding of peoples individual and social imagination in developing goals, investing means and ways to approach them. It is learning to identify and satisfy socially legitimate needs.
There is development ,when people and their communities whatever the spaces and time-span of their efforts-act as subjects and are not acted upon as objects; assert their autonomy, self-reliance and self-confidence; when they set out and carry out projects. To develop is to be, or to become individually potential and not to have the self esteem which may diminish the capabilities of the potential worker.
Unfolding people’s creativity requires a reversal of authority. There is nothing new in the idea of the reversal of authority. It has been that of the democratic social movement for ages. What is new is the multiplication of the signs of a revival of local action; all over the world. The new affirmation of local action, despite difficulties, contradictions and limitation is a significant making of an emerging new order.
Two contributions are essential: that people reassert their rights to determine and act upon their own needs and priorities, and that government policies increase personal and
local access to resources. Thus people in their own communities will be more able to cultivate the habit of direct action instead of waiting upon ‘them’ to do things for ‘us’. What is required is a new balance between community, market and state, not the hegemony of anyone sector or system.
There is no development without basic freedom and personal security. To remove oppression is thus an obvious precondition. In this process, representative, pluralistic institutions, however, are only beginnings. They should develop in the direction of participatory democracy operating at the living, working and learning places.
A system more responsive to the participatory aspirations of another development would enable people to propose, to question, to veto, and to defer decisions which affect them. This would put a brake on the tendency of the political class to drift away from its electorate and render it accountable to the latter.
This paper highlights the importance of women in executing developmental projects. It highlights the importance of training to educate women volunteers in the execution of such projects. Further it give emphasis on women as key instrument in development of society, the persuasive power of women in educating the people to ICSVBD improve the living conditions of men & women who are living under poverty conditions, women as an instrument of confidence builder and creative worker. Women can work better than men given the proper support, .care and remuneration.
The other areas the paper highlights are the power of state and restructuring the economic interest for development. The role of industry, agriculture finance and institutional support for development. In the end the author emphasis upon the importance of self reliance in terms of nation building, the people involved and more important the role of education that is available to help people to learn and to think for themselves. By education in this context is not meant the conventional academic schooling but a pedagogy of self-reliance; learning to participate, to assume responsibility, to take decisions, to be less dependent, to communicate, to serve others, to receive messages critically, to depreciate waste and appreciate sustainability and the needs of future generations above all learning through and throughout life.
A self-reliant nation is a nation of self-reliant people. Self-reliance cannot be dispensed or dictated; it must be learned, and the learning process starts with the individual. It is a slow cumulative process, stretching through generations and susceptible to reverses. Self-reliance means primarily the autonomous capacity to develop and to take decisions.
Self-reliance contributes to rendering a country less vulnerable to external pressures political, economic and cultural. It has been and continues to be the cornerstone of development strategies.
CREATING AND STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS FOR GENERATION AND APPLICATION
by Haleh Arbab, Gustavo Correa
A genuine process of development can only be unraveled through the expansion of a people’s capacity to become active participants in the process of generation and application of knowledge, a process that requires the creation of adequate learning institutions for access to external knowledge, for recuperation of traditional know-how, and for the generation of new knowledge. After analyzing the above mentioned assumption, the authors refer to the concrete example of the rural university created by Fundaec, Fundacion para la Aplicacion y Ensenanza de las Ciencias, in Colombia.
ROLES OF NGO’S AND PVO’s FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT
by Miah Feroz
Sustainability has many definitions; one definition is related to environmental sustainability, others to economic, social, and political sustainability. For the eyes of most development-oriented non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) the term means that benefits flowing from a development program or project will be able to be maintained after external interventions or donor funding has been withdrawn.
Bangladesh has a large number and wide variety of NGO’s. Among the various kinds of NGO’s I will present, in this case, BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee). This is most probably the world’s largest indigenous non-governmental development organizations. One guiding principle of BRAC is the need for sustainability. BRAC does not want the benefits generated by its village interventions to depend on its continued presence or the availability of donor subsidies. It recognizes that self-reliant villages development initiatives are likely to be sustained only as long as they are based on locally supported systems or linked into a supportive national improvements. This means that national systems need to be changed, policies re-oriented, and world modes straightened.
For my paper I will discuss the following chapters:
1. Bangladesh at a glance
2. History of BRAC
3. Programs of BRAC
- How they are working
- How they are not working
4. Future of BRAC
COORDINATION OF AFGHAN RELIEF CoAR 2ND QUARTERLY NARRATIVE REPORT
by (No Author Name)
CoAR was founded at the end of 1989 with the aim of distributing an appropriate aid to Afghanistan which would lead to the possibility of the long term aid based on local community development.
The work of CoAR over the last three years, leading to the setting up of the Foundation for Rural Development and Rural Development Centers was presented in the first quarterly report published by CoAR in March 1993*.
Without repeating the whole of this report, it is nevertheless worth recalling that at the Sayedabad conference in October 1992, the offices of CoAR determined three objectives to be met by the RDCs which had been created in 1991:
- To improve cost/efficiency ratio.
- To improve the mid-term capacity for self-financing.
- To improve project impact of least favored groups.
CoAR’s experience showed indeed that the rural rehabilitation program carried out over the last three years benefited the least favored groups only indirectly, in so far as they allowed a general improvement in the economic situation in areas affected by the projects. After repeated requests by local communities, it was therefore decided to undertake programs to benefit these sections of the population.
Three target populations were selected as a priority: women, children, widows.
It is worth noticing that, given the diversity of local conditions, it was left to the discretion of each RDC manager to determine the conditions of setting up the social welfare centers and the cost of centralizing aid to least favored groups. Thus, in practice, in the spring 1993, these social welfare activities started up in three directions:
- Two new experiments in the field of education and health, launched by Shashqala RDC.
- Start up of activities to support war-widows by each RDC.
- Restarting and expanding the school building program by each RDC.
These three programs helped demonstrate relevance of the idea of integrated programs which were the basis for the creation of RDCs.
Moreover, the systematical appeal to local resources both financial and managerial, the gradualist approach in setting up the programs, the enthusiasm showed by project officers and the keen interest showed by local populations in this type of program should all ensure the continuing success of these activities in future.
The setting up of the social welfare programs will probably have played a crucial role in widening the base of local community support for the ROC and the inclusion of these communities in the ROC activities. It is therefore a crucial step in the process of developing the ROCs as focuses for rural development.
This report will, first of all, briefly recapitulate the exposition of motives and working patterns of the ROCs and will then introduce each of the activities which followed the establishment of our ROC welfare centers in spring 1993.
STUDY REPORT ON FAO SUPPORT OF – PILOT ACTIVITY TO STRENGTHEN FARMER ASSOCIATION DEVELOPMENT
by Agricultural Administrative Development Division (AADD)
The objective set up of pilot activity for ·farmer associations development is to search for alternatives in analyzing group action of farmer associations which will later, lead to problems, causes of problems and solutions to such problems of group action including capability building of personnel concerned in working for group action promotion. This project was initiatively launched in 1989 by which some small farmer groups in 1985-1987 FAO-Small Farmers Development Project (SFDP) areas were chosen to study on effect and impact of group action. The selected SFDP groups were in the following villages
- Ban Muangkwang in Amphoe Jomthong of Chiangmai,
- Ban Noenmakhampom in Amphoe Krokpra of Nakorn sawan;
- Ban Nonglhai in Amphoe Muang of khonkaen; and
- Ban Klongnhang in Amphoe Sathing pra of Songkla.
The outcomes taken from the study on group action of the SFDP groups between 1989 and 1990 resulted in a guideline on group promotion, development, and improvement including efficiency increase of personnel concerned.
Later in 1991, the Department of Agricultural Extension (DOAE) used the group promotion guideline formulated from SFDP study results to study on group action analysis of farmer associations in SFDP areas mentioned earlier. This extended study was to find out obstacles hindering progress of the farmer associations and the possible solutions. Replication of such a study has later been launched into 1 or 2 farmers associations in every province throughout the country. The study results so far could be concluded as follows:-
DOAE has promoted agricultural career through group action in various forms i.e. farmer associations, farm housewife groups, farm youth groups. These groups formed, however were initiated by DOAE’s personnel with little participation ·if not no, of farmers in the areas. Such group formation was against principle of group process – the process to allow farmers forming their own group at their willingness when they really need a group not because someone outside their locality ordering them to do so. As to such farmers’ misunderstanding, action taken in most farmer associations was not satisfactorily successful. Problems often occurring were farmers’ unawareness of group action, personnel’s lack of knowledge in working for group action promotion, insufficient cooperation among organizations concerned and, failure of existing groups or farmer institutions in bringing benefit to their group members on parity basis. In looking for possible solutions, special effort should focus on farmers’ capability building in thinking, decision-making and doing together among the farmers themselves – the so called “farmers’ participation”. Simultaneously, farmer organization development needed also to be readjusted by which personnel concerned both responsible officers and farmers’ leaders had to be equipped with expertise in farmer institution development.
In pertinence of SFDP group action, it was found that
- SF group formation in helping each other promised Future formation of an effective farmer association – a legal farmer group at Tambon level due to Revolution Decree No. 140-141 B.E. 2515.
- SF leaders were trained to be the active leaders; they were convinced of participatory development concepts and, were recognized by community people as community’s leaders, too.
- Officers concerned knew what and how to work for group action promotion; they also changed their attitude toward group development – work with them not work for them.
It could be stated as such that small farmers development had two directions to go. First, replication of SFDP to cover the whole areas. And second, development of SF groups
to pursue some forms of legal farmer institutions for instance, a farmer association, an agricultural cooperative, etc. All of which might be expected as follows.-
1) Whenever SF formed their own group at their real need in helping each other and, could uplift their living conditions as to such effort, the . SF group was likely to integrate its action into group action of other farmers in the area. This might further anticipate the formation of a farmer association or an agricultural cooperative;
2) As a consequence of group development in particular farmers’ self management in production input utilization and capital investment, the agricultural extension system should make special effort on group management of various funds for example, fertilizer fund, seed fund, saving fund etc. which in turn, would lead to dispersion of inputs and technology for farmers’ use.
For field observation of action taken by the farmer associations both in and out FAO SFDP areas, recommendations can be made as follows:-
1) Special attention should be made before promoting group establishment; farmers needed to form their group voluntarily for a certain period of time until they would have experienced in working together; then legal group registration could be granted;
2) A farmer association needs to have a good manager to run group business; the manager may be hired by a single group of farmers or by several groups in the same locality;
3) The group committee and the manager need to be trained in group business and marketing;
4) The farmer association should pursue group commitment resulting from decision – making of group members; the pursuit of such commitment however, must not against farmer association regulations.
5) All group members need to be simultaneously trained in the context of community betterment as well as the issues of agricultural career development;
6) The farmer association needs to be developed at the willingness of its group members and the potential of area where the group exists; this is to prepare the group to be agricultural development base for all farmers in the community; the local farmers are expected to be capable of planning together, buying together, selling together and, helping each other; the responsible officers should only function as farmers’’ consultants and coordinators beyond group responsibility.
by Jose M. Heredero
This paper studies the obstacles which stand in the way of villager participation both at the level of the people’s subjectivity, and at that of existing structures. It concludes by seeing increased participation as the result of a two-pronged attack: (a) a thorough study of the local situation leading to an educational program of social awareness in order to transform subjectivity and (b) the setting up of an appropriate organization which is non-competitive and builds on existing social leadership system and economic vested interests. The aim of such an organization must be to answer the most urgent needs of the local population. This is a techno-managerial problem which requires technical and managerial solutions.
MICRO NUTRIENT FORTIFIED COMPOSTS: A NEW APPROACH TO PLANT NUTRITION
by Jagdish J. Nazareth
A new organic approach to plant nutrition, invented in 1987 and since then field tested in 40 villages with 84 small farm holders on 19 tropical crops is situated in its socio – economic and scientific context, in India.
The success of the approach in field applications calls into question the scientific, economic and ecological basis of the dominant Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potash, Micronutrients model for soil fertilization and plant nutrition.
This new approach is suggested as the core of a new paradigm for plant, animal and human nutrition which would be more two-way information based rather than input-commodity oriented, and would lead to possible social solutions to the micronutrient malnutrition of rural human populations, even as it would boost crop productivity of small farm holders in quantity, quality and variety by improved and profitable recycling of organic agricultural residues and animal manures.
The author requests agencies funding rural development projects involving wasteland and watershed rehabilitation through agriculture, horticulture or forestry to support NGOs
trying to incorporate micronutrient fortified composts into their projects as an experimental measure, so that more experience is gained with the approach in various agro-climatic zones.
EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PEACE: A PEDAGOGY FOR THE POOR
by S. P. Udayakumar
The modern education system, which claims to treat every child equally irrespective of their socio-economic status, or individual capabilities, is a delusion. Giving the poor a broad general education is neither liberating nor meeting their basic learning needs. Even when public education is accessible to the poor, it proves to be of little worth for their development and peace. Hence the poor are driven to child labor.
The child laborers are denied their legitimate birthright, viz. a joyous childhood. Instead, they are forced to add to their families’ income at the cost of their natural growth and development. They work long and hard in unsafe work places and under oppressive circumstances for meager salaries. Their amenability to discipline, punishment and control, easy acceptance of deprivation, and absence of any kind of organizational support make them even more vulnerable.
If “education for all” includes the poor and marginalized, we need to reinvent the education system to focus on life-oriented “basic education” instead of a school curriculum geared toward higher education. We have to come up with innovative educational programs where the poor children earn an income and learn a job skill. Such empowering educational programs should combine education, work, and play. The children may learn a skill, general literacy, numeracy, oralcy, and conflict resolution skills, and also earn a remuneration for their field work.
This pedagogy for the poor should be grounded on revolutionary theories of peace, development, and education with an isomorphic analysis of peace and agriculture, the paper argues for human centered development which emphasizes basic learning opportunities for and empowerment of the poor and powerless.
Unless we can discover a method of basing education on primary biological process, we shall sink deeper into disunity, mass neurosis and war.
– Sir Herbert Read
VILLAGERS’ PARTICIPATION: VITAL ROLES OF A PLANNED SUPPORT COMMUNICATION COMPONENT
by Mallica Vajrathon
Rural communities are not homogeneous. We cannot speak in general about “villagers” and “development”; village development has to be put in a wider global context for accurate analysis.
Over half the world’s population lives in subsistence economy in the developing countries, but villagers in countries of Southeast Asia, where yearly economic growth is up to seven or eight per cent live in quite a different communication and development environment than villagers in countries of Africa and Latin America with continuing decline in economic and agricultural performance. Deteriorating terms of trade, weak markets for their non-oil commodity exports, critical financial problems linked to external debt, and mounting inflation have all combined to depress incomes and wages in the villages of these developing countries, but these factors impoverish villagers differently depending on where they live.
Villagers in Malaysia in Southeast Asia, 18.8 million population, 75 per cent living in rural areas, with an estimated 2 million television sets and 3.5 million radio receivers in use, would surely identify their developmental needs in a different way from villagers of Sierra Leone in Africa, 4.4 million population, 71 percent living in rural areas, with an estimated 25,000 television sets and 900,000 radio receivers in use, because of the sheer volume of their exposures to new knowledge, innovative information and options available for solving developmental problems from these mass media.
WOMEN AND SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF RURAL WOMEN IN NIGERIA
by Agbeje A. Ujo
Women constitute more than half of the population of Nigeria. Most of them live in the rural areas which are not developed. The women are not only living under the poverty level, but they are becoming poorer and poorer with every passing year. The situation has been aggravated by the fact that the development strategy of the various governments in Nigeria have emphasize the urban areas.
However, within the past few years the government has tried to address the issue of rural development. To this end various organizations have been set up and a lot of money has been pumped into the rural areas. Some of the efforts of the government were specifically directed at women, especially the Better Life for Rural Women Programme. This paper evaluates these various programmes in relation to sustainable development from the perspective of organization, interactive processes, motivation and participation.
URBAN IMPACT ON ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS
by Rohinilal Muni Chakravorti
For the maximum utilization of resources in terms of production, distribution and consumption — urbanization today has become the process of restructuring the natural elements – air, water, soil, vegetation, biotic orders, economic distribution, social values, sonic environment and the like. And we are in the midst of such a gigantic and all pervasive revolution — Urbanization of the World. We are paying for the changes brought to ecosystems by man, even before urbanization and industrialization started through processes like tilling, monocropping, irrigating-draining-reclaiming, deforesting & selectively afforesting, controlling rivers, deserts & topography-that have progressively robbed Nature of its regenerative vitality.
From the unawareness to the Holistic approach in planning, it appears that we and our cities are unable to revert the distrous course. Forced to maintain an intensive land-use, a socio-economic order that characterize a city, compelled to consume facilities more than one’s system can assimilate – scientists from all fields, urban planners and the beneficiaries/will have to develop a pragmatic urban pattern which will rectify the aberrations and offer a healthier environment for work and prosperity.
The paper highlights on the need to identify conflicts & contradictions in our comprehension & awareness and infonnat1on gaps with a view to adopting energy efficient Holistic approach to urban planning and management.
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT – A PEOPLES PROGRAM
by Mukund A. Ghare , Ashutosh S. Limaye
Watershed development program has evolved over a period of two decades, especially through the efforts of voluntary organizations in the drought prone, rainshadow areas of three western states of India. The work that started as relief providing operations passed through vicissitudes of development of watershed management program, which is worked upon as resource development, nutrition and health development, environmental regeneration as also human resource development program.
This paper takes review of such development towards this program and the present status. Such work by voluntary sector has influenced governmental policies to some extent. In the state of Maharashtra, state government has declared a program, Jala Sandharan (water conservation) for villages chronically suffering from acute drought conditions. Besides a number of programs have come up wherein funds from various funding organizations like Ministry of Economic co-operation, Germany, Danida, Christian Aid, OXFAM have come forward with support to voluntary sector. The basic aim of the effort is to achieve self sufficiency with village as a unit of development but on watershed principles. Essentially, the work cannot be undertaken unless the backwardness and ignorance of the rural masses is eradicated on one hand and the scientific temper is well entrenched in their mind and behavior.
Since village is a unit of development, villagers are expected to be the architects of the plan and design. Even these villagers are the implementers with wages. As such, providing appropriate training and education related to the work becomes part of the project.
This paper presents the concepts and models that are evolving with some comparisons. It would be premature to analyze the impact, since such comprehensive approach is just about two to three years Old.
SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT THROUGH VILLAGE BASED PLANNING – CASE STUDY OF A NOMADIC TRIBE HAMLET
by Ajeel P. Oak, Ajil M. Phadnis
This paper presents an experiment carried out by a voluntary organization on a small hamlet of Nomad tribe in Kandhar tahsil of Nanded district in Maharashtra, India. These Nomads have accepted migration in search of labor as their own solution over their poverty. They migrate for eight months in search of wages, come back to the hamlet to cultivate their lands, occupied illegally but legalized in 1992. This land is practically devoid of soil cover and has a collapsed primary resource system. There was no source of drinking water in 3 kilometers of vicinity of the hamlet.
In present experiment, 16 families and a population of 100 is involved in their own progress through development of natural resources around their hamlet. Their gaining control over their natural resources was considered more important than outside help. Following sustained contact and group meetings, awareness increased. However, the skepticism about the intentions of the voluntary organization was under shadow until actual work began. The topographic survey followed the socio-economic bench mark survey. This helped in developing the database and audit of village assets and liabilities.
A plan was then prepared to develop the soil and water resources of the area and then secondary resources like agriculture and biomass. The plan was discussed with the villagers and finalized following suggestions from them. The participation of the villagers increased as soon as their problem of drinking water got solved within a year. This helped in their understanding of the behavior of components like soil and water with in their village regime.
Till now, work on soil conservation, water harvesting, training on sustainable agriculture has been done. Small dams are being constructed, and production of organic manure for both local use and as a commercial activity is on the cards.
All the activities are planned and supervised through a local committee, which shall go a long way in making the project sustainable. The work will be completed during this year but the results achieved in the form of improved yields (25% increase in first year), assured drinking water, and increasing greenery has spread in similar habitations of the Nomads around and four such have already undertaken work on similar lines. The experience so far on these hamlets is a case study in itself.
A CASE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE, COMMERCIALIZED AGRICULTURE: SEED, FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONTRACT PROCUTION IN SAKHOD NAKORN PROVINCE THAILAND
by Diane Dolinsk
While the movement towards privatization has been sweeping the political agenda of many regions of the world, the methods to accomplish this remain an open question. Over the summer of 1991, a study was performed of a single case of contract farming in Northeast Thailand, the case of Lam Nam Oon. This project was successful not only in providing greater income to the rural, agrarian population, but also in transferring the “reins” for market development from the government to the private sector in a relatively short time. In the autumn of 1993, the author returned to Lam Nam Oon to investigate the progress of this project in the interim, and to assess the sustainability of the arrangements. Thus the attraction and retention of eight agri-business firms producing crops for export provides an opportunity for understanding the private sector’s requirements for investing in a relatively underproductive region. Moreover, the widespread adoption of higher technology crops and the participating farmers satisfaction with contract arrangements has positive ramifications for the design of economic development programs in farming communities elsewhere.
TOWARDS RIGHT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT
by Henryk A.Jasiorowski
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on the most suitable technologies for village based development in the most unprivileged countries. Animal production will be our area of considerations.
Village-based problems of development is our target but it is obvious that some general problems of livestock and policy options in developing countries should be mentioned here as well.
THE EL CAMINO EXPERIENCE: BUILDING HUMAN RESOURCES
by Rev. James D. Mitchell
In the last forty years the population of rural Colombia has decreased as many people abandon their rural life lured by the myth of urban prosperity. A failed educational system has encouraged this migration. Since 1973 El Camino has attempted to develop meaningful education and training program for rural youth, thus endowing them with rural appropriate abilities and technology and preparing them for leadership responsibility in the promotion of their own community. Although EI Camino is a history of failures, it provides many lessons and has opened the doors for a regional effort of village based development
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP- MY EXPERIENCE WITH THE AGUARUNAS OF NORTHERN PERU
by Dennis Olson
It has been ten years since I have worked with the Aguarunas of northern Peru. During this time I have been able to reflect back on the 15 years of working with the Aguarunas in the area of Community Development. Being able to step back from the day to day problems one gets involved in, allows new perspective on one’s role in the community development process and the expectations of the people. In this paper I will discuss how I worked with the Aguarun leadership to achieve community goals.
FOSTERING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL COSTA RICA
by Sheila Bliss Duffy
Once a democratic model for the rest of Central America, Costa Rica thrived as an agroexport economy producing a few traditional goods and protecting crops. With industrial and import dependent sectors, it was a benefactor state based on borrowed money dating back to its Colonial period. Structured as a society of independent farmers, families owned their own land, grew and consumed basic grains. The excess was sold for cash to purchase needed items. Traditionally, offspring lived, worked on and received a piece of the family farm in return for their labor. Productive land, coupled with generous government social services including housing, healthcare, food and education programs enabled citizens to live a simple yet comfortable lifestyle.
In the 1960s steps towards industrialization were taken by the Government. Loans to purchase equipment were made and large foreign debts incurred. The trade imbalances and balance of payments problems of the 19705 and an economic crisis in 1981 made Costa Rica the first underdeveloped country to suspend debt payments. The serious debt situation precipitated the structural adjustment programs initiated in 1985 by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and resulted in the present austerity budget which stopped government subsidies, guarantees and protections to small farmers.
The austerity measures resulted in an unequal distribution of progress between sectors and geographic areas of the country. In the mid-80s, the top 10% of the population received 37% of the wealth while the bottom l0% of the population was left with only 1.5%.15 Consolidation of land ownership in the hands of Costa Rican and foreign elites also resulted. 12 Now, of all arable lane in Costa Rica, 54% is divided into large farms under 200 hectares or more another 38% of farms of 20 to 200 hectares and only 8% of the land is devoted to family farms under 20 hectares. 5 Lessened agricultural credits, higher interest rates (around 30%) for borrowing on traditional products, an inflation rate of 25% .16 the country’s currency devaluation since 1980 of 960% 13, and severe cuts in the country’s social welfare programs work together to change significantly the operating environment of Costa Rica and have made rural living a challenging prospect.
In the 1980s, the Government found itself bankrupt in the middle of the worst recession in the history with high interest rate to pay external debts. As a result, it changed economy policy to maintain stability, restructured the economy. Costa Rica’s Government is involved in everything from education, heath and social service to banking, Petroleum refining, and beer brewing and can be characterized as financially burdened, bureaucratic and inefficient. Today, fewer of its services are reaching the rural dweller than ever before. What services are provided are slow in coming and difficult to access. Government agencies such as the Ministry of Agriculture provide extension services to farmers but are severely limited by budgetary strains. No Government retraining programs for those affected by the changes taking place in rural areas exist.12
Whether for lack of adequate land, skills, capital or the need or desire for cash, many rural dwellers are rejecting the rural challenge altogether, and have migrated to urban areas in search of salaries. Many small farmers are now unable to compete with the larger or more efficient competition and have sold their parcels, mostly to foreigners. This phenomenon has led to the slow death and disappearance of small communities and cultures. Of 70,000 basic grain farmers studied in 1984, only 27,700 remained four years later. Foreign investment in agriculture, primarily nontraditional crops, went from $36.8 million in 1987 to $84.8 million in 1991. 13 In 1980, less than 1/4 of the population owned land. It is this large landless peasant population that suffers most economically.
The country’s demographic make-up as well as it’s concentration of government services has become heavily urban. In 1983, urban constituted 44% of the country’s total population. More than 1/2 of all Costa Ricans live in the Central Valley which is the Country’s center of economic activity. The rate of growth of urban areas between 1973 and 1982 was nearly twice that of rural areas. Economic pressures resulting from the new economic model and significant migration from rural to urban areas has factored into the increases in crime, drug cultivation and use, separated families, infidelity and the 17% alcoholism rate. 1 The areas which experience the most poverty are those furthest from San Jose. 15
In 1985, Costa Rica ranked second in Latin American countries with the most quickly diminishing percentage of deforested land with only 26% of it’s land now covered in forest. The Government’s efforts to reforest only result in the planting 5,000 acres of trees each year. Few involved in agriculture utilize good natural resource conservation practices. Costly, outdated, inefficient and environmentally destructive farming methods are still used. Slash and burn agriculture, increased cattle rising and wide-spread soil erosion are diminishing the amount productive agriculture lands are available to farmers.
Now, one out of every 10 Costa Rican live absolute poverty. 1 The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) released its fourth annual Human Development Report in May 1993. The report offers data of 173 countries and for the four HDI components, Costa Rica ranks 42nd.
It appears that poverty in Costa Rica is becoming increasingly wide-spread and increasingly rural despite the efforts of foreign governments and numerous private organizations to fund and administer community development projects. This reality may be due, in part, to the fact most take a top down approach and provide little training. More often than not, the project technician is Costa Rican and therefore is as accustomed to doing for others as the others are accustomed to having someone do for them. This creates a vicious cycle that results in very little knowledge being transferred to or adopted by the rural dweller, continued dependency on a force outside of the community and little real change in the community’s ability to take steps to confront its development challenges itself.
Rural Costa Rica has been slow to respond to the present market-oriented economy. Government programs which still meet basic needs to some extent, lack of adequate community organization and administration skills necessary to meet the challenges that the new economic model presents and a pervasive dependency mentality severely inhibit response. Most rural dwellers are accustomed to the old environment where one could survive regardless of economic realities and haven’t yet organized themselves to be able to bring about community development, mostly because they don’t know how to do so. Sizeable plots or land, considerable capital, working together, basic organizational, management, technical skills, and analytical thinking abilities were unnecessary under the old model but are critical to rural survival today.
Therefore, any attempt to bring about sustainable development in rural Costa Rica must begin with comprehensive training as it appears to be the missing component and can help rural dwellers to access whatever else they need to realize their goals. Even with considerable training, sustainable community development is hard thing to bring about and close to impossible without it.
A.I.D. UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT LINKAGES PROJECT
by The Pennsylvania State University (Principal Investigator: Audrey N. Maretzki)
The development goals of improving infant and child nutrition and enhancing the economic status of women are crucial in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Penn State University, Tuskegee University and the University of Nairobi at Kabete have chosen to address these particular goals using a community-based nutribusiness development approach in which the universities will collaborate with women’s groups in the Districts of Kericho in Western Kenya arid Muranga in Central Kenya.
We have selected these locations because although the districts are agriculturally productive, children from both the urban centers and the surrounding local villages show a degree of malnourishment at the weanling ages. The introduction of locally produced. culturally acceptable weaning foods, to be used in conjunction with breast feeding and that would be available year round, could improve infant and child morbidity and mortality levels in these areas and improve the economic status of women as well.
Within each of the two districts, we would select a) a village in which the women’s groups would be involved in commercial-scale processing of a local weaning food (nutribusiness production site); b) a village in which nutrition education classes are given and women are taught to prepare weaning foods for their children at home, but who are not involved in the commercial enterprise (nutrition education site); c) a section of the urban center in which the weaning product is promoted and offered for sale, but where women are neither involved in the production of the product nor receiving nutrition education (marketing target site); and d) a control village in which no intervention is attempted but where baseline and final measures are taken in order to control for the impact of social, political and economic factors that may affect women’s economic status and the health of their children.
In our long term involvement with the community we will provide an educational framework through which local women as well as men will be involved with the project, both as recipients and as providers of information. Extension education programs will be conducted as a way of increasing agricultural output by women, who are frequently overlooked by the Kenyan extension system. Training will be provided to increase both the entrepreneurial and technical skills needed by women to operate a weaning food processing operation success fully. Food and nutrition information, essential to an understanding of the dietary needs of infant s and children, will be incorporated into the training. Local women’s knowledge of current and traditional infant feeding practices, and their insight into the conditions women experience that might influence their involvement in a food processing and marketing venture, will be tapped to assess the feasibility of introducing a new food for infants or marketing a traditional infant food in an unfamiliar form.
The three universities involved in this linkage view the establishment of nutribusiness field laboratories and the initiation of applied research projects in Kericho and Muranga as a goal to which each can contribute meaningfully, based on their unique institutional capabilities and resources, and from which each institution will derive important benefits. The opportunity for faculty, extension agents and students to carry out research and education projects in these two communities will forge professional relationships between individuals at the three institutions that would never occur without UDLP funding.
In direct contrast to proposals that address internationalization goals by focusing upon academic exchanges between scientists in laboratories carrying out related research, the linkage proposed in this document will provide a set of common developing country experiences for USIHE faculty and students and will enable them to establish personal contact not only with other scholars but also with local Kenyan women and families whose needs are sometimes overlooked in development-focused, production-oriented, international agricultural research that is often male oriented contact.
To complement the nutribusiness project activity in the Kenyan communities the USIHEs will initiate a course on “Gender Issues in African Development” that will be offered regularly at both institutions. They will also provide faculty and student exchanges among institutions and will collaborate with the University of Nairobi in improving its facilities for the electronic retrieval of library information.
Over the five year period, the participating institutions will be providing nearly 1.5 million dollars in support of this project. This is a strong indicator of the level of interest on the pan of all the universities in sustaining this linkage.
EVALUATION SYSTEMS FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
by Edgar G. Nesman
With the increase of rural development projects through out the world during the last 40 years, the need for evaluation activities associated with them has also increased. Evaluation is an important part of insuring that projects meet desired goals and make the best use of scarce resources. In spite of the need for evaluation activities and the frequent attempt to include them as part of development projects, not all of these efforts have resulted in satisfactory outcomes. Systematic evaluation should be present throughout project life. As a minimum, there are three specific periods in the life of a project when evaluation activities need to be included: 1. In the beginning, as an initial evaluation study, sometimes called “baseline”, “needs assessment”, or “diagnostic study”: 2. During project implementation, as an ongoing method for monitoring progress: and, 3. At the end, as an evaluation study to assess the overall results or impact of the project. A list of thirteen criteria that are useful for the design and monitoring of evaluation systems are included in this paper as they have been summarized from the literature. These criteria are then used as guidelines in a case study format to examine a current development project in Guatemala, the Highlands Agricultural Development Project. The tentative conclusion from the comparison is that the guidelines are valid but are subject to many constraints in their application to a specific project.
SUSTAINABLE TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT
by Pradip Prabhu
Sustainability is in vogue today and used ad nauseam with the result that the concept is given such a wide range of meanings depending on the interest of the exponent, that it will soon face the plight of the Tower of Babel, Sustainability was not in common usage in independent India, when the new rulers, after their prolonged struggle against British colonialism, began to define the nation’s future, But for them ‘sustainable development’ was coterminous with freedom, it came to signify self reliance and self sustaining growth as the basis of self determination. As the anti-thesis to colonialism sustainability was a far more accurately understood, powerful socia-political concept and motive force for development as the expansion of freedom. (1) Then why the new preoccupation with sustainability? Because the present development process is unsustainable? Or it results in the under development of those we set out to develop? Or it results in enslaving the persons whose freedom we decide to expand? The answer is paradoxically depicted in the Bruntland Report Our Common Future a major document in the sustainable development debate, which rightly identifies the fallacy of the current strategies of economic growth based on indiscriminate use of natural resources, pushing then to extinction or degrading them to a point where they threaten man’s future. But after presenting the damning impacts of affluent life styles, runaway consumption and rampant industrialization its suggestions betray the grave internal contradictions in conventional development thinking: “If large parts of the developed world are to avert economic, social and environmental catastrophes, it is essential that global economic growth be revitalized (2) Sustainability’ applies not merely to the replenishable use of natural resources, but primarily to the issue of means and ends and includes in its ambit emancipation, humanization, and ethical norms pertaining to the survival of all living matter in its diversity, the rights of future generations (3) With appropriate technology and socio- cultural organization and institutional mechanisms responsible to enshrine such rights. (4) It implies that the overall level of diversity and productivity of components and relations in systems, organizational, environmental and cognitive, are maintained and enhanced till new ones are proven superior. (5) While recognizing the cultural dimensions of development, it calls for affirming and enhancing diverse cultural identities.
TECHNOLOGY INTERVENTION FACILITATING SUSTAINABILITY IN A FISHERMEN COMMUNITY – CASE STUDY
by Joshep P. John
India is now in the midst of dynamic changes. This has resulted in the restructuring of the country’s economy which leads to a modern and egalitarian society. This paper mentions the various problems overcome by the country for sustainability. It also deals the changes occurring in the present context and the pertinent questions to be answered in the field of technology interventions. The rural scene and the harmonious relationship between nature and the rural people are some of the other aspects dealt with in this paper. It also includes the Government’s involvement in sustainable village development through technology intervention. Among other things this paper presents a lucid and detailed case study of the introduction of FAD as an example of technology intervention for the sustainability of a village.
FRAMEWORK OF VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT – AN EXPERIMENT WITH VILLAGERS
by Milan K. Dinda
No sustainable development is possible without the alleviation of poverty from the Third World countries immediately. The alleviation of poverty is not only primary responsibility of the national governments but Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have tremendous roles to incorporate some village based models to alleviate poverty.
Emphasizing on the indigenous genius in the grassroots and rural entrepreneurship development programmes, innovators have to design and implement massive village based development programmes which should be internally, environmentally and culturally viable.
In the paper I am trying to highlight some ideas on the basis of my own experiences which will help to build some models for sustainable village based development in the Third World.
BUILDING THE INSTITUTIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITIES OF THE TIGRAY DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION IN ETHIOPIA
by Wray Witten, J.D, Peter Van Arsdale
Founded in 1989, the Tigray Development Association (TDA) has initiated efforts to assist in the redevelopment of Tigray, Ethiopia’s northern-most province. Droughts, famines, and the repressive rule of the Mengistu regime through 1991 had led to significant deterioration in infrastructure, institutions, agricultural production, and water resources.
Upon invitation of Tigrayan representatives, external advisors and consultants (including the two authors) are working to assist the redevelopment process. Water resources are a focus. After outlining general development processes and pitfalls, with an emphasis on issues of sustainability, this paper goes on to address institution building activities now underway. Capacity-building is emphasized, as are the roles of counterparts. Culturally sensitive legal and dispute resolution mechanisms are shown to be essential.
WOMEN IN RURAL ECONOMY – A CASE FOR SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT
by Meenakshi N Dalal
Based on a field study of time allocation of rural households in India this paper presents the “social technology” which integrates women in rural economy. Women in India are adversely affected by the economic development pattern which has created urban rural dualism. This paper provides a set of arguments for sustainable village-based development necessary for equitable growth, benefit of which will narrow the gender gap of economic opportunities and income.
IMPLICATION OF CHANGING SOCIO – ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
by Dr. Thomas P. Varghese
The environment, the eco system, is a balance between water, air and plant life. If we cause an imbalance in what nature has given us we are bound to face serious consequences. Man in his avarice bas polluted the earth’s water, air, even up to the ozone belt and has devastated the forests. It is not enough to blame the Government or to blame unscrupulous contractors. It is the responsibility of each one of us to know our needs and to conserve our environment accordingly.
We cannot speak or indict our increasing environmental decay on poverty or hardship or an increasingly polluted world or over decreasing resources. What we actually require is a new economic growth that can be based on policies that sustain and expand our environmental resources base. Environmental poverty is one of the main causes of the great poverty that is increasing in the developing world. Human and animal survival depends greatly on environmental resources.
INTEGRATED VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT : PARTICIPATORY APPROACH – A PNG MODEL
by E. Ortega
The recent initiative of the government to invigorate the deteriorating system of rendering services to the villages is commendable. It is a policy long overdue and which is in dire need, to be addressed by all citizens of the land. Although, government services has always been available to the village people, its delivery system, reception, sharing and sustainable management was fragmented and did not generate the desired impact of sustainable village development. Each service agencies i.e. Health, Education, Youth etc. implemented their programme variously and aiming at a singular goal i.e. health programmes to achieve certain health standards rather than a health programme aimed at achieving improved village living standards. This flaw in the system has defeated the purpose of such services which is to develop the villages into a sustainable habitat and a strong building block for PNG as a nation. Much of what has been done in the past are “directed village development” a typical strategy of the “Top-down development concept. The bulk of Papua New Guinea ‘ s population (about 80%) that lives in the rural areas were objects of development in this strategy and thus depriving them the opportunity to participate in the development process.
Such was the case that people may have been used to the system that attempt to change the strategy to one which requires people participation and the real bottom-up planning (of which the rudiments a village-need related development are conceived by the people themselves) may take time.
In most Public Investments Projects (PIP) for instance, although the elements of participation is an n important consideration, there is no strong mechanism that ties up this element into the project. It is an anticipated reaction and which has no definite parameter. This is because most PIPs are “directed developments carried out primarily as a rapid action programme aimed at achieving productivity and thus revenue or rapid economic growth regardless of the human factor . The few projects with integrated development approach such as small holder market access. Food Supply Project addresses the need of a packaged development in least developed areas chosen for its implementation, but, its success is very minimal because it failed to generate village initiated participatory responses.
We are in an era where peoples power is an important factor of development. It is a pre-requisite to a participatory development process. Peoples power is only achieved by effective organization. Village organization is necessary to represent the aspiration of the village people, thus it should be through their initiative that the village is organized – as a first step towards participation. By doing so, the village develops collective self confidence and counter-veiling position to counter- act dominance by and dependence on well established power establishments i.e. bargaining position in the market by common sale/purchase bargaining power; increased control over policies and practices of various development agencies which distribute productive services and resources – claim-making power. We need to facilitate the initiative of the village people to organize by providing the instrument which will enable them to carry out the tasks. In doing so, we need to specify the criteria by which the villagers will base their organization. This criteria will encompass the socio-economic aspiration of the people.
This maybe best achieved through a legislated policy such as the Village Charter Act (attached) or a similar mechanism.
HUMAN AND ANIMAL POWER FOR RURAL AREAS
by Job S. Ebenezer
Rural development in third world countries depends very heavily on the utilization of readily available materials, energy sources, and human resources in those regions. During the past decades, the use of nonrenewable energy sources, such as fossil fuels and electricity for small -scale agricultural processes and rural industries has not made significant contribution to the development of the small poor farmer. The cost of oil and its scarcity in rural areas have rendered agricultural processing machinery depending on these sources useless to many small farmers. Electricity is also scarce and undependable in most of the rural areas. Nuclear power not only involves prohibitive capital outlay , but requires dependence on foreign capital and technology. Safety is also a paramount consideration in the use of nuclear power in less developed countries. Natural energy sources such as solar, wind, biogas and biomass hold promise for the future. But, developing these energy sources for use in small -scale agriculture is not economically viable and may not be in the reach of marginal and small farmers for some time to come.
As such, the rural poor and small farmers are left with only two energy sources, namely human and animal energy. From time immemorial, these have been utilized and for many more decades to come these two energy systems will be indispensible. Most of the implements powered by animal and human energy sources are simple, are manufactured mostly by the village craftsmen and are maintained by them without relying on outside help.
Mahatma Gandhi in Harijan (1934) wrote, “My machinery must be of the most elementary type which I can put in the homes of the millions.” Following the observation and recommendation of Mahatma Gandhi, the author has been involved for more than a decade in developing innovative uses of human and animal energy systems using readily available resources, especially in India. The present paper describes the use of bicycle for both transportation and powering small -scale agricultural machinery, and small-scale rural industries and innovative uses of animal power for rural areas.
SUSTAINABLE RURAL DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME: DEVELOPMENT IN THE HANDS OF THE PEOPLE
by Horacio R. Morales, Jr. , Ma. Persevera T. Razon
Philippines 1993. The state of people and environment. Each Filipino owes the world $516 or a total foreign debt of $31 billion, the bulk of which was acquired in the last 2 decades in the name of development. Yet, 20 years later, more than half of the country’s 60 million people live on $2 a day, while 50% of the nation’s wealth goes to one-fifth of the population (I). Moreover, decades of a growth-oriented and debt-driven economy has wiped off 75% of its 16 million hectares of forests, now still rapidly disappearing at 219,000 hectares a year (2). , As a result of forest denudation, I billion cubic meters of topsoil are washed away each year (ibid). Aquamarine resources are likewise diminishing at a fast rate with 3/4 of the country’s coral reefs gone and only 6% in excellent state. Of the 400,000 hectares of mangrove forests in the 1920s, only 7.5% of this remains.
Philippines 2000. The latest buzzword of mainstream development strategists led by the Ramos government. Wrapped in rhetoric on sustainable development, environmental protection and people’s empowerment, the Medium Term Philippine Development
Plan (MTPDP) for 1993-98 aims to put the Philippines among the ranks of newly-industrialized countries (NICs) by the year 2000. The question is, will it work?
After eluding 6 post-war administrations, will industrialization finally dawn through Ramos’ version of the NIC model? More importantly, does the current development
strategy substantially address the persistent problems of poverty, inequality and environmental degradation?
21 years ago, the alarm had been sounded off at the 1972 United Nations Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm. Survival of the earth and its people rests on pursuing a sustainable path of development. Global development must be within the carrying capacity of the environment, and must redistribute resources and its benefits to most of humankind rather than continue concentrating it on a few. Two decades of advocacy had led to Rio, the Earth Summit of 1992, which produced 5 major documents to guide humanity’s actions onto a sustainable development course into the 21st century. However, “the UNCED products are delicate compromises the level of which has been ultimately dictated by the rich and powerful.. .. Taking altogether all five documents that emerged out of the UNCED, it is unlikely that there’s going to be any fundamental shift in the dominant strategy that informs all of human activity” (3).
The core problem is strategy. The country’s scarce capital and a dwindling natural resource base gives little room for mistakes. The Philippines 2000 plan is where scarce resources are being poured in right now. It is crucial that we know where it is going to lead us – onto release or onto irreversible disaster.
Already, a lot of questions are being raised about the unrealism and inconsistency of its projections. From a growth rate of less than 1 % in 1992, MTPDP shoots for an average annual growth rate of 7%. It expects to finance this through more internal revenues, increased export receipts and investments. How it plans to do this raises even more questions. Government’s past performance in revenue collection has been dismal with uncollected amounts averaging P38 billion a year (4). Moreover, the proposed new set of taxes tend to hit low- and middle-income earners more rather than the rich. The export sector, on the other hand, continues to be squeezed by an overvalued peso and scaled-up protectionism in the world market. The “benevolent” US and international market of the ’50s to ’70s which gave rise to Asia’s “tiger economies” is no more. MTPDP relies heavily too on a foreign investment-led growth, aiming for a 300% increase in inflows during the period. To do this, it has to work against the odds of: 1) a serious energy crisis which has put the country’s industries almost to a standstill; 2) a global recession; and, 3) increased competition for foreign loans and official development aid (ODA) with former socialist nations.
At the heart of the debate is the NIC model itself. High growth was achieved by the Asian dragon economies such as Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea at a huge cost to people and environment.
NICs became possible via authoritarian states and at the expense of democracy. “The rise of the NICs from the ’60s to the ’80s coincided with the era of authoritarian development.. .. Throughout this period, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore have been ruled by dictatorships … (which) never hesitated to intervene in full force to meet the economic targets they set for themselves” (5).
Industrialization paralleled ecological destruction. In Korea and Taiwan, much of its water, polluted by industrial wastes, is unsafe to drink. Only a third of Korea’s forests remain, while Taiwan’s primary growth forests nearly gone and its secondary growth areas rapidly being converted for agricultural use. Korea’s industries yields an estimated 591,000 tons of toxic waste every year. Massive use of chemical-based fertilizers in these countries has likewise poisoned its soils to the point where toxic grains are being produced instead (6).
Philippines, Quo WIdis? The 1990s is a critical decade where we either “make it or break it”. By the looks of it, the NIC strategy isn’t likely to make it. How Ramos’ version is going to lead to growth alongside democracy and ecological sustainability has yet to be spelled out. The current debate needs to be stripped of sustainable development rhetoric which coats official development plans and strategy. Even those posed by alternative camps, the task at hand is to outline in clearer terms what sustainable development is all about, what actually works and how it can be operationalized at various territorial levels.
The Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) has entered into this arena with a clear alternative, embodied in its core programme, the Sustainable Rural District Development Programme or SRDDP. Began in 1988, the SRDDP serves both as a policy framework for PRRM’s advocacy initiatives, and as an area development programme with a clear set of targets, strategies and activities being implemented in 5 pilot “sustainable rural districts” (SRDs) across the country. The SRDDP concept embodies PRRM’s fourth generation strategic orientation of advocating comprehensive systems change, and posing a clear alternative by demonstrating its viability on the ground. SRDDP is a finite intervention scheme with clear entry, consolidation and withdrawal phases implemented across a 12 year period. Now on its 6th year of implementation, the programme has recently completed its entry phase and has entered into the consolidation stage of intervention.
This paper shall outline basic assumptions, principles and strategies and some of the processes of SRDDP.
VILLAGE-DETERMINED NEEDS AND PRIORITIES
by Aftab Anwar
It is not clear about the ultimate objectives of development but one thing which has come out from its embryonic form to maturity up to some extant is that the old concept of government to government aid is less effective not only to the point of view of the acceptors but also because of new economic realities in the developed world. As it is a reality that the inhabitants of developed countries, vote and support for the parties which are interested in providing aid to poor countries also the majority of the people contribute to voluntary development organizations (1). This sense is gradually developing that this aid should not go wasted but be utilized properly. So the position of the governments of the developed countries is not the same as of 1960s. Also the impact of aid on third world development is not up to the aspirations of the developed countries. The aid is only likely to pay a minor role in stimulating growth and development and bridging a limited number of gaps over a limited time period. Too much aid is likely to increase the likelihood of its substituting for or postponing domestic action or more broadly of delaying the ability to promote self sustaining development. (2). The new ideas about development of the third world have grown out of the fruitless pursuit of old order. Now the direct help from donor countries to the peoples of the third world seem to be more prone to achieve the goal of the development and help creating a civic society and culture. The civic society includes a diverse range of organizations, institutions and groups, each directly governed ·by a particular group of citizens(3). As far as the sustainable development is concerned, creation of civic society is a basic condition. As the independent civil society is indispensable for marinating social organizations that check inequalities of wealth power and knowledge that protect human rights that are concerned with gender and intergenerational equalities and protection of the environment that promotes voluntary cooperation and solidarity and provide for sensitivity to new ideas and policies with in particular cultural context (4). The civic culture represents the pattern of interdependence of not only the governments but also all peoples.
The tradition of private foreign aid is not a new concept. It was a missionary activity and proved to be help full for a direct contact of people of one country (through NGOs) having many psychological advantage over other forms of aid or help. With the inclusion of secular voluntary agencies in mid nineteenth century it broadened its scope. It also reduces the fear of indirect control of donor over acceptor government and reduces the gap between first and third words.
The Second half of 1980s has witnessed a boost of funding NGOs with the belief that way have an important role in the area of poverty alleviation.
THE TRANS FORMATIVE POWER OF TRAINING VILLAGE WOMEN – THE RURAL WOMEN’S TRAINING CENTER IN MALI
by Laurie Timmermann
Mali’s population of over eight million is one of the poorest and least developed in the world. Rural villagers, comprising over 80 percent of the population, earn subsistence incomes of less than $200 per year and lack even basic services of primary health care, clean drinking water, and sanitary waste disposal. Malnutrition and infectious diseases contribute to the low life expectancy of 43 years and the high infant/child mortality rates of 296 per 1,000. Only 11.5 percent of women and 25 percent of men are literate.
Rural women are at a particular disadvantage as they have less option for access to training, resources, and services than do men in West African society. For example, male instructors teach literacy primarily to other men. Women are typically not served by male extension agents, though women have significant roles as agriculturists. Women are often unable to obtain credit.
Malian women marry young, bearing an average of seven children during their menarche. Maternal mortality is estimated at seven deaths per 1,000 live births, accounting for 25 percent of female deaths. Many rural women do not have access to trained pre-natal and maternity care. Access to family planning for child spacing or control of family size is problematic due to resistance based on cultural attitudes.
To address these constraints, the U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID) developed a pilot rural women’s training center in Ouelessebougou, Mali, as a delivery system for appropriate technology to meet the needs of rural women, based on the regional model of Hanimation centers.” The project sought to study the local social setting, to solicit the support of the village leaders and members, and to have the female staff meet with the women in all 72 project villages to elicit their views of their needs and aspirations. The findings served to identify the priority training subjects as health / nutrition / hygiene: agriculture; mid-wifery: and literacy.
Each village nominated one or two women for each of the training courses. The trainees then served as village change agents in the capacities of health and agriculture workers, trained mid-wives, and literacy teachers. All sessions included public speaking and group facilitation, as the trainees would hold weekly meetings to train the other village women. ‘To reinforce each area of training, day- long follow-up visits were held in each village.
For three years from 1982, an average of 166 women per year received two to four weeks of instruction, totaling some 500 women trainees. Starting in late-1985, all trainees received week-long refresher courses over an 12-month period; plus, leadership training was provided for leaders of village women’s groups. Village consultative committees were formed of both men and women to jointly discuss development needs and to serve as a liaison with the training center, a notable departure from village custom. Due to close rapport of the villagers and the staff, the training center has closely responded to felt needs, such as introducing improved wood stoves, alternative soap making, and reforestation. The center has sponsored the introduction of labor saving equipment such as grain mills and oil nut presses.
The benefits of the health component included uncontaminated food and water; improved diet, hygiene, and village sanitation; better infant and child care, nutrition, and prophylaxis; and reduced illness, including the prevention of malaria and diarrhea. Other benefits have been reduced risks to women’s health due to better pre-natal and maternity care and family planning, as trained traditional midwives provide access to contraception; refer women to prenatal screenings; and perform normal deliveries under sterile conditions in the villages.
Rural women reported increased incomes from more productive gardening techniques; a changed attitude in being able to gain technical extension advice; access to land for women’s collective investments; and management of the use of donkey carts for access to markets.
Around 50 women gained four to ten weeks of part of on-going adult learning leading to keeping. More intangibly, the training increased status both in terms of greater public voice to their views and the enhanced the community. literacy training as numeracy and record has afforded women self esteem to give respect as leaders in the community.
The pilot rural women’s training center represents a successful model of technology transfer that deserves wide replication throughout rural Africa. In a culturally acceptable way, the model with it’s focus on participatory needs assessment and involvement can address Africa’s interlinking development dilemmas of women’s education and status, functional literacy, safe motherhood, high fertility rates, high disease and morbidity prevalence, child survival, food sufficiency and income generation, sustained natural resource use and regeneration, among other concerns to be determined on a case- by-case basis depending on the local setting.
TECHNOSERVE’S EXPERIENCE IN AGRIBUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN SUB- SAHARAN AFRICA
by Edward P. Bullard, James G. Heme L
Through a process of trial and error over a 25-year period, TechnoServe has developed a successful approach to creating locally owned agribusinesses in sub-Saharan Africa, and other parts of the developing world. These agribusinesses do not fit well with the classic definition of “agribusiness” as used in western developed economies. Rather, they are farmer-owned and operated businesses, and frequently combine the elements of primary agricultural production, value added processing, and end-product marketing. These businesses are located in rural areas, close to the supply of raw materials, but not always within easy access of the local modern infrastructure.
TechnoServe’s 25 years of effort demonstrates conclusively that profitable and sustainable rural agribusinesses can be established and operated by rural small farmers and that such efforts can be cost-effective. Despite these successes, there is no quick and easy way to accomplish these results. The process requires a long-term commitment on the part of the implementing agency, a professional approach, adequate funding resources, and an economic and political environment which s conducive to enterprise development.
TechnoServe’s approach to agribusiness development is utilized in other areas of the developing world, most notably in Latin America. Our programs here have had even greater successes than in Africa, and in some cases our efforts have had national level impact on key commodity sectors in the country. Because the scale of the enterprises assisted in Latin America is larger, our efforts there are more cost-effective than has been the case in Africa.
A recent example of the application of these principles to agribusiness development is the CAVECUVI Rice Cooperative in south-western Rwanda. When TechnoServe began its assistance, CA VECUVI was deep in debt, members were selling their paddy rice to a competing state run mill , and sales had dropped to dangerously low levels. In 1992, after having received extensive assistance from TechnoServe over a four-year period, the cooperative has aid off much of its debt, non-members are now selling their paddy to the co-op, and sales are at record levels. With total sales in 1992 of over $500,000, CAVECUVI ranks among the largest private firms in Rwanda.
The CA VECUVI Cooperative, and hundreds of other similar rural agribusinesses in sub· Saharan Africa and Latin America, has convinced us that a broader application of these enterprise development principles is the start of a revolution in the agricultural sector of sub-Saharan Africa. This revolution springs from a movement taking place across Africa that reflects the time-honored traditions of commitment, hard work, free enterprise, and sound business practices. The movement builds on participatory community development principles, and recognizes the need to help build the productive capability of indigenous people so that they become better managers of their resources, creators of their own wealth, and practitioners of sustainable development.
TechnoServe, through the systematic application of these enterprise development principles, is helping to put the rural poor in charge of their own resources and give them a say in their own future. In thirteen nations, our local country programs are spearheading this revolution which applies systemic solutions to systemic problems.
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE BASED DEVELOPMENT
by Mboma L.M
This paper examines the appropriate methodological approach to sustainable village based development. Improved general welfare of the people hence their development, has been a concern of nations and the international community at large. Such improvements have been directed to communities particularly in rural based populations through various programmes, and projects. However, several approaches have been used top down, down-up, direct and indirect, multisectoral, and various models as developed by experts in various fields of economics, agriculture etc.
Most of programmes and projects objectives have always failed to be realized and sustain growth because of inadequacies in their methodological approach. The paper proposes that, adoption of animation methodology would enable participation of the villagers / community, sustainability hence people development.
EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN THE VILLAGES OF AFRICA
by Kabambi Lukinda Kapanda
Two-thirds of the earth’ s population (more than 3 billion people) live in the villages of the Third World. The World Bank, 1992, estimates that 1.1 billion of these people are living below the poverty level. While billions of dollars have been invested in these countries as gifts or as loans, for the most part, only the wealthier 10 – 20% of the population have benefitted.
A Significant number of independent, non-governmental organizations ( NGOs ) and private voluntary organizations (PVOs), have successfully developed and demonstrated, in isolated cases, techniques for helping· Third World villages. These techniques have been studied and form the basis of a model for Third-World village development. This model is proposed as a foundation for a pilot project involving one million people, With the hope of evolving procedures and techniques for replicating the project throughout the Third World.
CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN AN EVOLVING LANDSCAPE: LESSONS FROM AUROVILLE
by Bill Leon
In the practice of sustainable development, there is a need to consider the sustainability of both cultures and environments. o successfully manage landscapes evolving under the influence of exogenous cultures and technologies, planning must be comprehensive and must maximize the participation of all affected parties. These ideas are illustrated with observations of Auroville, a new and still developing settlement in southern India where intercultural cooperation and holistic environmental management have been cornerstones of the development process. An evaluation of work with indigenous villagers leads to general guidelines for development practitioners interested in balancing cultural and environmental concerns.
BRINGING PUBLIC FINANCE TO SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT – SOME EXPERIENCES OF THE INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
by Donald S. Brown
It is s very great pleasure for me to be able to take part in this important Conference on Sustainable Village-Based Development. You have set an impressive objective for your deliberations. It is my impression that these objectives have the potential to contribute to the elaboration of the kind of new development paradigm which has been called for recently by Gus Speth, the new Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme. In his first talk with ‘ UNDP staff he spoke of this concept as follows:
“What is this new paradigm? While recognizing the importance of the overall success of the national economy, it says that development that does not improve the lives of the great mass of the poor has no soul, that development that impoverishes the environment has no vision. It says that development does not occur in a political vacuum but depends both on effective governance and also on the empowerment of the many communities in civil society to participate in the decisions that affect their lives.”
These words certainly come close to what I understand you hope to get out of this Conference. They ring exactly the right tone for an organization like my own which is so deeply concerned with rural poverty. I certainly expect this Conference to look seriously at the issues involved in village development and participation within this context. I hope my comments will be helpful in that respect. I would like to set the context for my remarks by talking a bit about the institution with which I am now associated the International Fund for Agricultural Development – IFAD. In that vein, I will discuss some of the hypotheses with Which we work, particularly the concept of “participation” – the specific issue which I think is most important to your proceedings. I will note our view on the rationale for participation, as well as some of the problems which are always present. I will want to close by talking about some of the issues of financing sustainable rural development.
SUSTAINABLE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT
by R.C. Sekhar
The paper reaffirms the utility of the model of the development wheel as an analogy for understanding local subsystems of rural development. As described by Faulkner and Albertson, its onward clock-wise movement is egged on, in tandem, by “soft” and “hard” technologies. In amplification, the paper based on empirical evidences, hypothesizes two distinct waves of “soft” technology. The first provides paradigmic shifts in culture, attitudes, and power equations and is more often triggered by external stimulus. The “sustainability ” is however ultimately provided by a second wave of institutionalizing and fine tuned adaptive internal control systems. These vary in structure, nature and detail with varying forms of transactions and purposes; individual economic entrepreneurship, co-operative economic entrepreneurship, provision of infra-structure and public services and environmental protection. The innovation and adoption of “hard technologies” can be sustainable in the long run only with the ability to make demands on larger “global systems” of research and development. These unlike scattered local systems, can be more effective due to scalar economies and can be protected more easily against” risks” by public policy and funding. The paper sees the recent seventy second amendment of the Indian constitution as a major step to enable all these to happen. The paper suggests several manners in which external funders could capitalize on this.
PILOT PROJECTS ON DISTRICT IN INDIA
The Eighth Five Year Plan envisage policies and programmes which will lead to near full employment conditions and almost complete eradication of poverty by the end of the decade. To achieve this objective, the Planning Commission has identified 3 ‘thrust areas’ viz.. micro level planning, population control : and employment generation. Among these ‘thrust areas ‘ micro level planning is of special significance as the problems of unemployment and population explosion have to be tackled in the ambit of micro level plans.
Although there was emphasis to adopt micro level approach with district as planning unit right from the first Five Year Plan, still by and large. The planning exercise in the country is limited: to formulation of Annual Action Plans Consisting of financial and physical targets of different sectoral departments. A realistic plan containing answers to the problems of spatial arrangement of settlements for meeting socia-economic needs of the people, optimum utilization of land, water and human resource and provision of infrastructure and social facilities et c. is yet to be operationalised. As such a simple planning methodology which will take care of all the above aspects would be the requirement in the Eighth Plan.
In the following pages a planning methodology at micro level has been presented which has been evolved at the NIRD on the basis of Pilot studies taken up in the states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Bihar. Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. Sponsored by the Planning Commission. Government of India.
SUSTAINABLE INCOME OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AREAS: THE CASE OF THE EASTERN POKHARA VALLEY, NEPAL
by Indra P. Tiwari, Karl E. Weber
Given the physical setting, spatial characteristics and socioeconomic conditions, opportunities at household, sectoral or spatial level were identified through the assessment of interactions between sociocultural setting and resource accessibility. People of different categories were deriving income from more than a single opportunity. Income opportunities largely available and accessible to the identified weaker segment of the community were of the low income generating type, namely, agricultural wage labor and/or traditional services along with the practice of crop and livestock production in marginal or small, fragmented landholdings under a traditional subsistence mode. People identified local natural resources and anticipated their potential utilization for better income opportunities. Most attempts were made in search of a sustainable income opportunity and in direct continuation of existing patterns. Recommendations for planning and research include a local resource-base specific proposal to assist groups seeking alternative income opportunities through target oriented as well as integrated approaches.
THE ROLE OF EXTERNAL/INTERNAL ACTIVATORS IN STIMULATING SOCIAL FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT
by Sam Aisu
This paper attempt s to asses the need for both the external and internal activators and their role in stimulating the social factors of development. The paper also examines the characteristics of the activators and points out their potential weaknesses and inadequacies against a background of ACORD-Uganda experiences in using external activators in rural development promotion in three districts since 1987.
ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE REPLACEMENTS FOR WOODFUEL IN DRY. DEFORESTED AND POPULATED REGIONS OF AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA AND ASIA
by Eugene B. Shultz. Jr. , Wayne G. Bragg , Jack Whittier, Scott G. Haase
Woodfuel burns more rapidly and inefficiently and produces more health damaging smoke, in comparison with certain new biofuels that we have tested and will describe in this paper. Women bear the brunt of the deficiencies of woodfuel and its most common replacements dungcakes and crop residues.
The wood fuel-deficit regions of Africa. Asia and Latin America. mostly drylands are home to more than half the world’s population and the numbers of inhabitants are growing. As deforestation of the world continues. the numbers of people with inadequate access to woodfuel will probably rise from 1.3 billion in 1980 to 2.7 billion by the year 2000 (Chege 1993). Environmentally sustainable and practical replacements for woodfuel, dungcakes and crop residues are urgently needed, and successful candidates must produce little or no smoke. This problem has been of concern to the development field for many years, but has not been resolved for a host of technical economic and cultural reasons.
We offer a new strategy based on a tested solution, the utilization of non-woody carbohydrate biofuels produced by sun-drying the roots of certain species of wild plants in the ubiquitous Cucurbitaceae family (gourds. melons. etc.) We call this unusual combustible “rootfuel” (Shultz. Bragg. Duke and Malkani 1989). This type of starchy / cellulosic biomass is produced more rapidly than woody biomass in the arid and semi-arid lands where the need is greatest. and we have found that it is superior to wood in combustion properties. Smokeless or near-smokeless combustion is possible and significantly less fuel is needed to carry out a given cooking task. Rootfuel addresses seven serious problems at once:
- Illnesses due to woadsmoke, afflicting women and small children (especially little girls) much more than men or boys.
- In rural areas, women’s laborious wood fuel-scavenging trips and the opportunity costs to family and community.
- In rural areas, the misuse (as fuel) of animal dung and crop residues that should be more properly used to increase crop yields.
- Escalating costs of marketed woodfuel as the trees disappear. This is an increasing hardship for the poor, borne mainly by those who migrate to the cities but remain unemployed. The plight of these people has been mentioned by Chege (1993)
- In cities, increasing air pollution as the population grows by immigration of the poor from rural areas and wood is increasingly used as fuel instead of charcoal.
- The devastation of near-city woodlands to provide charcoal and woodfuel to be marketed in the cities. These trees are virtually never replaced so that when the charcoal and wood are burned there is a release of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that is never reabsorbed by an equal amount of new trees. Further traditional charcoaling processes release large amounts of products of incomplete combustion and these are also powerful greenhouse gases.
- The host of land degradation and economic problems that follow closely upon deforestation leading eventually to the loss of capacity to support human populations.
To bring rootfuel to bear upon these problems, we advocate women-centered development strategies not even gender-neutral “people-centered” development strategies because of the strong gender bias involved in the woodfuel problem in the Third World. Women must not be excluded from processes, at the local level of social learning of the optimum methods of production of rootfuel and they must be fully engaged in the planning and execution of rootfuel production and distribution schemes in their communities.
In addition. two of us (WGB and EBS) have written on ethically-based bioresource development strategies appropriate for rootfuel, discussing issues and principles of self-reliance, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, decentralization and autoehthonicity (Shultz. Bragg. Martinez and Pluymers 1991; Bragg and Shultz 1992) and these strategies should be combined with women centered strategies in the development of rootfuel.
First our paper will survey our experience since 1985 with the combustion and acceptability testing of rootfuels in Latin America. Africa and Asia. As case studies, emphasis will be given to our most recent work in 1993 in Zimbabwe and Mexico, unpublished until now. utilizing rootfuel species that meet a long list of economic, cultural, production and combustion criteria that we had previously identified (Shultz and Bragg 1992).
Second we will discuss the objectives and strategies for a major international initiative on rootfuel as an environmentally-sustainable replacement for woodfuel, dungcakes and crop residues in dry and semi-humid deforested and heavily populated lands of Africa, Latin America and Asia. As part of our presentation a video documentary will be shown with footage from Honduras, Zimbabwe and Mexico.
NATIONAL PEACE CORPS ASSOCIATION – OF FLOODS AND NATIONAL AID
by Charles F. Dambach
I felt extremely honored when Maury Albertson asked the National Peace Corps Association to be a co-sponsor of his conference on Sustainable Village Based Development. Maury is a giant in the international development field and he helped shape the Peace Corps into the effective people-to people and village based program it has remained for 32 years.
The Peace Corps has provided 140,000 volunteers to serve in over 120 countries. We have helped communities build schools and establish neighborhood health centers. We have taught Africans, Asians and Latin Americans basic and technical skills and progressive agricultural concepts. Now, we are active in the Newly Independent States and Russia and the rest of the former Soviet Union as well.
At the same time, our friends in Africa, Asia, Latin America and now in Eastern Europe have taught us to respect and appreciate their cultures, their peoples and their values.
Every returned volunteer I have ever met has repeated the same refrain, “I learned far more and I gained far more from my Peace Corps experience than I could ever have given.”
The Peace Corps works because volunteers live among the people we serve, and we share ideas with them. We help them discover their own solutions to their problems rather than trying to impose our own systems and solutions.
Unfortunately, we are not large enough to have the global impact the world needs. There are more U. S. soldiers with guns in Mogadishu than there are Peace Corps volunteers in the entire world! (Imagine for a moment what might happen if we were to deploy thousands of trained Peace Corps volunteers to the world’s trouble spots instead of soldiers! … Just a wild thought!!)
But the primary value of the Peace Corps is the growing corps of returned volunteers and former Peace Corps staff. Because of our unique experience, we bring special knowledge, understanding and sensitivity back home.
Many remain active in international development. I just returned from the annual board meeting of CARE which has estimated that 1/3 of its overseas staff is composed of returned Peace Corps volunteers. There are thousands of RPCVs at AID and the State Department, including several ambassadors.
PEOPLE- LED MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT AS A HUMAN ECOLOGY SYSTEM
by Dr. P.D. Bhatnagar, P.G. Menon, Sri P.K. Kaul, Parmesh Chandra
Evolving a model for Sustainable Village Development called for a holistic approach for this human ecology system as well as A people operated system to ensure optimum and timely inputs reaching its ecologically sound and economically viable activities. These two requisites, complemented with a growing ‘people’s capital· system enabled a chain process of regeneration and recycling of inputs to be set up and maintained.
Varying degrees of sustainability are being achieved at different micro macro ecosystem sites, despite systemic constraints and natural calamities. Initiated perhaps a decade ahead of time, which seems to have come only now, such a reinforcing combination with appropriately geared and coup lied with the “Development wheel Model” can transform and crushing liabilities of the third world, namely the ‘poverty’ and ‘population’ into their main assets as ‘deriving potential’ and the ‘work force’ for Sustainable Development at the grassroots.
MODEL FOR LOCAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS ESTABLISHED IN SOMALIA BY TEMA – MAR INC. TO ASSIST DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN VILLAGES IN THE SOUTH-CENTRAL REGION OF THE COUNTRY
by Dr. Mohamed Ahmed Gilao
– Contains Flow chart
A SHORT INTRODUCATION TO FOUNDATION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT & RURAL DEVELOPMENT CENTERS
by (No Author Name)
The Foundation for Rural Development is the logical outcome of the initiative taken by a group of Afghans when they created Coordination of Afghan Relief (CoAR) at the end of 1989.
By launching CoAR, it was hoped to contribute to the reconstruction of Afghanistan.
By adopting the strategy of placing centers for integrated programs along an economical axis, CoAR hoped to minimize risks and costs and to maximize control of aid given.
Budgets allocated to CoAR increased regularly, and this allowed the growth of centers as a focus for rehabilitation which should spread out to several surrounding districts.
The managers of CoAR were keen to ensure the survival of these centers and to go beyd the conditions which obtained at their inception (aid for reconstructing Afghanistan funded from Peshawar between 1989 and 1992), and therefore they early decided to set up two organizations to follow up the project in free Afghanistan.
The central organization is the Foundation for Rural Development (F. R.D.), which was planned in 1991 and set up in October 1991 at Moqur, Ghazni province, and started work in 1992, in order to ensure the follow up of integrated rehabilitation projects ‘ as carried out by CoAR.