Why Should We Care About Climate Change. by Luminta Cuna

In a previous blog post I showed how the Amazon is drying due to changes in weather caused by land use change. Intense, large scale deforestation made space for immense grazing pastures and industrial monocultures like soy. Through a feedback effect, less Amazon forest means less rain, therefore the shrinking of this vast swath of trees in itself becomes a contributor to changing weather patterns. Last September, around Xingu Indigenous Park in Brazil, the biggest indigenous reserve in the world, a record 53,000 forest fires were detected. Dry, hot atmosphere led to even more forest destroyed and threw tons of CO₂ in the atmosphere, contributing, through a feedback loop, to more global warming.

Here in New York, since my last blog post 10 days ago, we experienced again a few days with 60 F followed by 2 days of blizzard and temperatures in the low 20s.  Everybody feels something is not right.

All over the world the effects of a warming world are already felt. Extreme weather events cause shoreline erosion, flooding, infrastructure damage severely disrupting daily activities. Melting mountain glaciers reduce water availability, which means failed crops and food security at risk. Heatwaves cause human deaths even in cities like Paris. Warmer winters enable pests and pathogens to survive and extend their range northward, spreading new diseases to humans, plants and animals. Crops and forests are decimated by fungi or mountain pine beetles. Vector borne diseases spread and new ones appear: the range of ticks carrying Lyme disease expands, the same stands true for mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus, Zika or dengue fever.

If some population segments in wealthy industrialized countries are still sheltered from the effects of our warming planet, other groups are already extremely vulnerable to these changes. “Building Climate Change Resilient Communities” class explores what makes these groups vulnerable and looks at mitigation and adaptation options to build community resilience to climate change effects.

In brief, vulnerability of a group or people is determined by three main factors:

1 – the extent to which they are affected by climatic events (sensitivity)

2 – exposure to hazards

3 – the ability to avoid or adjust to potential hazards, the capacity to anticipate risk, to respond to climatic events, to recover and change (adaptive capacity)

We now live in a world where mitigation and adaptation became necessary. Village Earth’s class Building Climate Change Resilient Communities explores some of the options:

Mitigation: fuel efficient vehicles, solar and wind power, efficient lighting solutionms, improved land management and cultivation techniques, composting, wastewater treatment

Adaptation: smart agriculture, crop relocation, building seawalls and storm surge barriers, water reuse (rain harvesting and ocean water desalinization)

To enrol in the Building Climate Change Resilient Communities click here. Registration is open until April 17, 2017.

Update from VE Affiliate Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization on the Pine Ridge Reservation

 MILA YATAN PIKA PTE OYATE OKOLAKICIYE
(KNIFE CHIEF BUFFALO NATION ORGANIZATION)

PROJECT REPORT

This report covers the period of November & December 2016, and January 2017.    Mila Yatan Pika Pte Oyate Okolakiciye (Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization) continues to provide a home/pasture for members of the Pte Oyate (buffalo nation) and the community continues to reap the benefits in terms of spiritual and physical nourishment from them.

 

November, 2016

November 05 – The Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization held a strategic planning meeting in Porcupine, SD with Dave Bartechi of Village Earth, Inc..  Working session included revisions of the vision/mission statement and the name change from Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization to “Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Society,” drafting a calendar of events and other organizational matters.

November 10 – 13 – The “Lakota Koskalaka Wica Yuwita Pi” (Lakota Young Men’s Camp/Gathering) was held in Porcupine SD.  This Camp was sponsored by a number of societies within the Tiospaye Sakowin organization.   Due to the interest, two camps are held annually – fall and spring.

The photos below show a number of activities during the Camp.

 

November 15 – The Society attended the Oglala Sioux Parks & Recreation Authority (OSPRA) meeting to make a presentation on a proposal to continue to sub-lease a pasture for a home for our relatives, the buffalo.  The Board of Directors approved a six month contract with an option to sub-lease for another six months if the land is available.

The Society received a $10,000 grant from the Tanka Fund to assist with the pasture lease payment and with operational expenses.  This is deeply appreciated and assists greatly with the care of the buffalo.

 

December, 2016

December 01 – The Society met to discuss and make further plans for the Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Society website.  A meeting will be held in March with a Colorado company who will assist with the work.

December 16 & 17 – The Society hosted the “Lakota Mental Health First Aid Training” in Rapid City, SD.  Twenty-two (22) participants representing various Sioux tribes in SD were in attendance.  Trainers were Ethleen Iron Cloud-Two Dogs and Richard Two Dogs of Porcupine, SD.

December 21 – Spiritual offerings were made for the Winter Solstice (Wanicokan)

 

January 2017

The weather in December and January was extremely challenging with frigid temperatures often ranging below zero for days at a time.  Along with extreme cold, blizzards covered the area with blowing and drifting snow.  Many of the Pine Ridge Reservation residents were snowed in and could not leave their homes.  For many days, schools were closed and events were cancelled due to this extreme weather.

 

 

Future Events and Plans

.The caretaker continues to check on our relatives, the buffalo, two times per week depending on the weather and road accessibility.
Will co-facilitate cultural learning sessions for the community on the sacred ceremony of the Wi Wayang Wacipi (Sundance,  the Inipi (purification/renewal ceremony) and other sessions as determined .
Will begin the planning and preparation for the Manhood Ceremony to be held in the Spring.
Planning and preparation is in the process for the following camps:
Young Men’s Camp – To Be Determined

Children’s Camp and Young Women’s Camp – July 5 – 9, 2017 at Camp Bob Marshall in the Black Hills of SD

Manhood Ceremony completed by a young relative.

 

 

Conclusion

Again, we extend a heartfelt appreciation to the people who support our efforts whether it be financially, physically or spiritually.  Your support is truly appreciated and we especially appreciate the Tunkasila (spiritual entities) for their continued support and guidance.  We also acknowledge the Pte Oyate (Buffalo Nation) for what they inspire in us and for their teachings, i.e., protection of the young, conservation of the land and the strength and fortitude to endure whatever is placed in our path.  Lila wopila tanka! (We thank you all very much).

 

CONTACT INFORMATION

Email:  [email protected]

Telephone:  605-441-2914, 605-407-0091

Website:  www.knifechiefbuffalonation.org

or www.villageearth.org look for Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization under Global Affiliate.

Village Earth Affiliate ICA-Nepal educates school girls on menstrual hygiene.

  1. During menstruation we should not use old clothes rags
  2. We should use sanitary napkins during menstruation
  3. We should safely discard the used napkins
  4. We are left behind others when we use cloth napkins
  5. Napkins should be changed every 4 hours.
  6. Napkins shouldn’t be thrown away haphazardly
  7. We should bath every day during menstruation
  8. We should pack the napkin with papers and throw in dustbin
  9. We must change time and again otherwise there will be infection

These were some of the points presented by school girls when they were provided with case stories regarding menstruation problem during an awareness program conducted at Dolagiri School of Changunaryan.

Menstruation is a biological process among women which plays a major role in reproduction. Yet this process is considered socially impure which is why women don’t talk or discuss about it in public. The superstition of being negatively affected if a girl on menstruation touches something has been so deeply injected in people’s mind that still in rural parts of Nepal, girls are bound to stay outside home or separetely during periods. The girls in rural areas still use cloth pieces which make them vulnerable to many diseases and infections.

Considering the need to raise awareness on menstrual hygiene and practices, Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA) Nepal has started the awareness raising programs on menstrual hygiene and use of sanitary napkins among school students. As the part of this program, the first awareness program was conducted in Dolagiri School of Changunarayan. The program is supported by ICA Japan. Total 30 students aged between 13 to 16 participated in the program which was facilitated by Ms. Sarala Timsina, Ms. Pritha Khanal and Ms. Devaka Shrestha.

During the program the students were provided with case stories out of which they presented the points which they felt were significant regarding menstrual hygiene. After the presentation of 4 groups, the facilitators explained more about the menstruation and how one should feel pure and holy during the period. Also, facilitators focused more on use of sanitary napkins rather than cloth pieces as they produce stains and can be prone to infections.

At the end, ICA Nepal provided packets of “Surakhshya” sanitary pads to school. The napkins are produced by the local women of Changunarayan which is an example of micro entrepreneurship for women empowerment as well.

 

 

 

Unprecedented Climatic Changes Posing Challenges to Indigenous Communities in Amazon Basin

It has been yet another unusual (read “warm, extreme weather fluctuation”) winter in New York City. More than once this year we had both winter weather (snow storm, below freezing temperatures) AND 70 degree days in one single week. Just this past Wednesday New York hit a whooping 70F degrees. Today, 2 days later, New Yorkers shivered in 30F high temperature. Early February smashed the 52 year mark for warmest temperature on record with 65 F on February 7th. Early the next day, temperatures plummeted to 30F. Luckily for us New Yorkers the most annoying thing this winter was to keep at hand both warm and cold weather clothes. And fight a few nasty colds that went around the offices.

We were not the only ones experiencing strange weather. Far away in Brazil, in the middle of Mato Grosso state, the indigenous peoples that populate Xingu Indigenous Park experienced unusual weather as well. Rains did not arrive in October as they have been for hundreds of years. There was some rain in January and then heavy rain in February. What did this meant for them? A few months with almost no food. Hunger. Their main crop, manioc, is usually planted in September. Because rain did not arrive during it usual schedule, the first planted manioc crop died. The communities replanted a new crop (note that they save only a certain number of manioc stems for planting). The second crop died as well: it did not rain. Third time was a charm this year: after the third crop was planted, the long awaited rains finally arrived in January and it looks like the third crop will make it. Three months later than normal. Still the rain pattern was strange, with scattered showers alternating with several hot sunny days, unusual for this time of the year.

The indigenous people of Xingu were not as lucky as New Yorkers. The climatic variability they experienced affected their food supplies. They went hungry for weeks and months. New Yorkers just kept switching from flip flops to down jackets in a matter of days.

The weather forecast for both places: beyond normal. Yes, we might have seen less snow in NYC because of La Niña, but still… a drop of 40 F in 2 days?

In Xingu, years of deforestation replaced cool moisture-producing forests with hot, dry pastures for cattle and massive soy fields. This has caused permanent changes the regional weather: less rain during the rainy season and increased heat during the dry season. In 2016, a scorching July gave birth to wild fires that burnt for weeks and wracked havoc in the already shrinking Xingu forests. Once rainy summers (I witnessed a 5-day period of almost continuous rain just 3 years ago in December) turned dry.

Our comfortable lives in New York City may not be drastically disrupted for now. We just need to have winter and spring clothes next to each other in our closets, get frustrated about it and vent on Facebook about the crazy weather swings our city has. In Xingu however, people are concerned about their lives. What will happen to their existence if they cannot grow manioc, what will they eat? With no rain and low river levels, not even fish can breed properly. Manioc and fish make 90% of their diet.

The communities of the indigenous park started thinking seriously how to become more resilient to all these climatic changes. 2017 is not the first year that their crops died; 2016 was similar, with one crop failing, not two like this year. Similar to New Yorkers, they are also thinking that maybe this is the new normal. They now meet in the center of their villages to find solutions that will ensure their food security: from irrigation methods (but with what funds?) to moving the crops location to changing the planting season. They are scrambling to find the most appropriate solutions. There is not enough past experience to provide advice on how to deal with this kind of problem. The elders have never faced similar weather shifts in their lifetime. They can only draw on past experiences when they used to move their manioc gardens when the soil became too depleted of nutrients to bear crops. This option is on the table. In fact, one village decided to split in two and form a smaller village further away, to alleviate the pressure the 300 strong population puts on the surrounding crop soil (see blog entry).

These changes are not going anywhere. These anomalies are becoming the new normal. All humans need to adapt, ones faster than others. Communities, from New York to Xingu have to become resilient and adapt to extreme weather, a consequence of climate change.

The “Building Climate Change Resilient Communities” class offered by Village Earth in April offers insights on what climate change resilience is and how to adapt to this new climatic reality.

Spring Session II Courses Now Open for Registration in Online Certificate Program in Sustainable Community Development

 

Classes for the Village Earth/CSU online certificate program in Sustainable Community Development are open for registration until March 3rd, 3017. This session we are offering four courses: Participatory Monitoring and EvaluationDevelopment and the Politics of EmpowermentCommunity-Based Health, and Community-Based Mapping.

Descriptions, instructor profiles, and registration links for each course can be found below.

PARTICIPATORY MONITORING & EVALUATION

Course Tuition:  $390
Continuing Education Units: 2
Duration: 5 weeks

Next OfferedDeadline to RegisterRegistration StatusOffered By 
March 3 - April 7, 2017February 28, 2017Open

Course Description

Discover participatory methods in monitoring and evaluation for community development, where multiple stakeholders are involved in the process of planning, collecting, interpreting, communicating, and using information. Gain skills in using regular monitoring and evaluation processes, which will lead to continuous improvements.

Upon completion of this course participants will be able to:

  • Plan a monitoring and evaluation project
  • Develop evaluation questions that address stakeholders needs
  • Select the most appropriate data collection method for a given situation
  • Effectively communicate monitoring and evaluation data
  • Use the monitoring information for effective feedback and improvement

Instructor

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

Pilar Robledo

Pilar is currently Director of Programming and Training for US Peace Corps in Kiev, Ukraine. She’s also serves as Education Cluster Co-lead at UNICEF Pakistan. Previously she’s worked for UNHCR, Save the Children, International Rescue Committee, and IREX. She holds an MPA in Public Administration from University of Colorado, Denver and a BA in Anthropology and Latin American Studies from CU Boulder.

 

 

 


DEVELOPMENT AND THE POLITICS OF EMPOWERMENT

Course Tuition:  $390
Continuing Education Units (CEU’s): 2
Duration: 5 weeks

Next OfferedDeadline to RegisterRegistration StatusOffered By 
March 3 – April 7, 2017February 28, 2017Open

Course Description

“…development is a process of empowerment.”
–Edwards, The Irrelevance of Development Studies

Over the last few decades, many scholars have begun to challenge traditional conceptions of development. Their work has generated an intense debate between those that attribute “underdevelopment” to cultural factors, and those that dismiss such ideas as racially motivated and instead recognize poverty and marginalization as primarily structural and systemic issues. Indeed, the concept of poverty itself has been challenged. Employing this critical lens, the course will examine the assertion that development should not only be seen as an economic process of wealth accumulation, but rather as a socio-political process of empowerment. This realization has major implications for how NGOs approach development, as it brings to light the fact that this work has a substantial political component. In order to overcome the disadvantages of poverty, structural barriers to success must be addressed. Through a careful investigation of the historical applications of development, we will explore the idea that development is an inherently political process and challenge the claim that any development NGO is apolitical. Additionally, we will strive to identify successful methods of community empowerment through political organization.

Upon completion of this course participants will be able to:

  • Analyze the underlying political implications and perspectives of seemingly apolitical actions in development work
  • Apply and refine techniques of empowerment and advocacy
  • Explain the history of development thinking as it relates to politics
  • Articulate a broader understanding of key terms, such as empowerment, participation, politics, and power

Instructor

Jamie Way, M.A.

Jamie received her M.A. in Political Science from Colorado State University. Her academic work focused on Latin America, international development, political theory and indigenous rights. She has worked with Village Earth since 2008 and now holds the position of Training Director for Village Earth/Colorado State University’s online certificate program in Community-Based Development. She has also been involved with Village Earth’s work on the Pine Ridge Reservation and in the Peruvian Amazon for the past three years. Her specialties include advocacy campaigns, strategic planning, issue framing and training for social justice.

Jamie speaks Spanish and Portuguese and is studying Chinese in Beijing. She is also currently working as Media and Communications Coordinator at Alliance for Global Justice, a Latin America solidarity organization.  Jamie teaches online courses on Approaches to Community Development, Development and the Politics of Empowerment and Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation.


COMMUNITY-BASED HEALTH

Course Tuition:  $390
Continuing Education Units (CEU’s): 2
Duration: 5 Weeks

Next OfferedDeadline to RegisterRegistration StatusOffered By 
March 3 – April 7, 2017February 28, 2017Open

Course Description

Access to health care and other resources, such as nutritious foods, employment, clean water, safe housing, education, etc. are crucial to maintaining health and well-being.  In an ideal world, everyone would have access to these essential means for survival, however, it is all too apparent that this is not the case for many communities and populations around the world.  It is desirable, therefore, for those groups who are not supported by a formal health care system to seek alternative solutions for the resources they lack.  Using case studies and other readings, along with group discussion, this course will explore the global, social, political, economic, and cultural factors that contribute to poor health.  It will also look at methods for empowering communities who lack access to health care to create practical solutions that are relevant to their unique situations.  Community-Based Participatory Research will be one of the key strategies dealt with in this course due to its focus on promoting change at the grass roots level.

Upon completion of this course participants will be able to:

  • Identify micro and macro level factors that affect health and well-being.
  • Collaborate with communities to evaluate their needs in regard to health and cultivate ideas for appropriate actions to address those needs.
  • Provide support for community-based solutions to health issues by establishing connections to information and resources.

Instructor

JohnStrawJohn Straw, M.Ed.

John Straw has an M.Ed. from the University of Illinois at Chicago, focused on social justice education, and his bachelors from the University of Michigan with a degree in Spanish and Education. John has spent five years working in Honduras and Guatemala on community-based health and development projects, and the past 15 years working with Concern America, an international development and refugee aid organization, based in southern California, with health, water, and income-generation projects in Latin America and Africa. He has been the Executive Director of Concern America since 2012.


COMMUNITY-BASED MAPPING

Course Tuition:  $390
Continuing Education Units (CEUs): 2
Duration: 5 weeks

Next OfferedDeadline to RegisterRegistration StatusOffered By 
March 3 – April 7, 2017February 28, 2017Open
 

Course Description

Mapping can be a powerful tool for communities to use to better manage their resources, plan for the future, record and utilize local knowledge, raise awareness about areas of concern in their environmental and social landscape, and communicate their priorities and concerns to external agencies or government officials. This course will explore theories, ethics, applications, and methods of community-based mapping and its role in participatory learning and action as well as larger processes of integrated community-based development. Students will be encouraged to develop a specific research/mapping question relevant to their interests and/or work and with the help of the instructor, will identity the mapping methods and tools to answer that question creating both a final product for the course as well as solid foundation that can be utilized in a more community-based research setting.

Upon completion of this course participants will be able to:

  • Summarize the basic principles, theories, and ethics of Community-based mapping and its role in Community-based development
  • Identify which mapping methods and tools are most appropriate to achieve the desired objectives in your community
  • Locate and utilize existing geographic information data sets, online and elsewhere, for specific project areas
  • Perform some basic mapping functions including projecting GPS coordinates onto a map, downloading and projecting satellite images, creating features from aerial imagery, and more.

Testimonials from Past Course Participants for Community-based Mapping:

“I am grateful to this course to make me think about space and power in such pronounced and palpable terms.” – UNDP Employee

“The assertion that mapping is power and that there are differences between mapping and community based mapping stuns me. This whole course is really an eye opener…These assigned readings make me think…One of the most profound readings was on the ethical considerations. More thinking – what am I trying to do here. As part of my job, merely asking programs to use maps of someone else’s making to communicate where they are and what they’re proposing to do in those locations. Not so simple, eh?”

David Bartecchi, M.A.

Dave received his M.A. in Cultural Anthropology from Colorado State University and has worked with Village Earth since 1998.  He is now the executive director of Village Earth.  Since 2000 he has been working with grassroots groups on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to recover lands for community-based bison restoration. He has also worked with the indigenous groups in Peru and Ecuador and trained and consulted on community-based development projects in in Azerbaijan, Armenia, India as well as with Native American tribes in California and Oklahoma.  He has been an instrumental part of several research projects with CSU’s Department of Anthropology including a 6 year longitudinal study of the informal economy on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota funded by the National Science Foundation, a survey of farmers and ranchers participating in the National Conservation Reserve Program conducted by CSU’s Natural Resource Ecology Lab and funded by the USDA, and community-based censuses on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations in South Dakota.

Dave teaches online courses in Approaches to Community Development, Community Mobilization, and Community-based Mapping.


 

Appropriate Technology Library Holiday Sale! Over 1,050 of self-reliance/DIY books on USB

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2016 Holiday Fundraising Campaign to Support Village Earth’s Global Affiliates

2016holidaycampaign

Olimometer 2.52

 Global Affiliate NameGeographic FocusAbout 
Facebook-Vert-LogoVillage Earth Area of Most NeedGlobalLet Village Earth decide how best to allocate your donation.
AmahoroAmahoro ProjectBurundiAmahoro project is a collaboration betweeen Colorado State University and Ngozi University in Burundi (UNG) to establish UNG as a ongoing site and dissemination center for research in sustainable peace and development.
CRDTCambodia Rural Development Team Northeast CambodiaWorks to sustainably improve food security, incomes, and living standards of subsistence rural communities in support of environmental conservation throughout Cambodia.
Earth TipiEarth TipiPine Ridge Reservation, SDWorks to sustainably improve food security, incomes, and living standards of subsistence rural communities in support of environmental conservation throughout Cambodia.
Eco_VEco-Friendly VolunteersSri LankaECO-V is a voluntary organization engaged in environmental conservation in Sri Lanka. ECO-V has a network of 400 volunteers throughout Sri Lanka who contribute to research and community work to support conservation of the environment.
EYCEmpowering Youth CambodiaPnom Penh, CambodiaEYC is a organization working to improve the lives of young people and their families. Our vision is to see youth empowered with skills & confidence to be leaders who actively develop themselves, their families and community.
FOFCODForum for Community Change and DevelopmentSouth SudanFOFCOD envisions a new generation of productive and self-reliant south Sudanese who can ably participate in community development programs to meet their needs and those of other disadvantaged groups.
GOLDGrowing Liberia Democracy (GOLD)LiberiaGOLD promotes poverty reduction as well as democratic & high quality governance by empowering local communities to effectively engage their law makers as to make policy decisions favorable for Liberians and to be fully transparent.
ICA_NEPAlInstitute of Cultural Affairs (Nepal)NepalICA’s mission is to promote social innovation through participation and community building. We do this throughout the country through training, facilitation & development activities.  
Human-and-Hope-Association-500x500Human and Hope AssociationSiem Reap, CambodiaHuman and Hope Association works to empower Cambodians to create sustainable futures for themselves through projects focused on education, vocational training and community support.
JalambaJalamba Nursery School ProjectThe GambiaThe goal of the of the Association is to empower youths, children and vulnerable families through education. The project has government support as a new school  which will serve ages of one through six. 
JenzeraJenzeraColombiaSupports community processes so that people can freely decide on their social, political and economic lives by defending their territories, empowering their own governments and developing a self-managed economies.
KnifeChiefKnife Chief Buffalo NationPine Ridge Reservation, SDThe Knife Chief Buffalo Nation, a grassroots project on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota, works to reclaim 1800 acres of ancestral lands for restoring buffalo, and Lakota culture and lifeways.
LBCCLakota Buffalo Caretakers CooperativePine Ridge Reservation, SDThe Lakota Buffalo Caretakers Cooperative (LBCC) is a 100% Native American owned and operated cooperative association on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Its membership is made up of small family buffalo caretakers who respect the buffalo and the land. Members of the LBCC are committed to the restoration of the northern plains ecology, self-sufficiency and strengthening the sovereignty and self-determination of the Oglala Lakota Nation and all indigenous peoples.
LLRPLakota Lands Recovery ProjectSouth Dakota ReservationsThe LLRP works to reclaim and consolidate tribal lands and access the resources needed for the Lakota people to live on, protect, and utilize it — promoting self-determination and sovereignty.
MalocaMalocaAmazon BasinWorks with Indigenous Peoples living in the Amazon Basin. It works directly with Indigenous leaders to raise awareness about the needs of their communities and find means to establish self-sustaining strategies to address their needs.
TasunkeWakanTasunke WakanPine Ridge Reservation, SDOur primary goal is to develop and implement Lakol Wicohan (Lakota life ways and laws, which includes language, values, beliefs, ceremonies and laws of the Lakota people) within the Oyate (Community).
TRCDATitukuke RCDAPetuake, ZambiaTRCDA is devoted to to uplifting livelihoods, reducing illiteracy, poverty and HIV/AIDS Health problems among the communities in Petauke, Zambia

VE Affiliate, ICA Nepal Promotes Hygienic and Taboo-free Menstruation

 
As normal as menstruation cycle is among women, hiding the issue in the name of shame or sin is equally normal in Nepalese rural community. Considered as a major taboo, women are forbidden to discuss about it publicly especially among the presence of male and undergo various restrictions in touching different places. The sense of impurity and shamefulness is so deeply subsisted in people that have kept women away from basic awareness about menstrual hygiene. Women are still using cloth pieces during the menstrual period being prone to infections and not being able to put their views about menstruation openly. This has not only subordinated rural women in present time but has bounded them from not enjoying their reproductive rights properly.
 
ICA Nepal in the realization of the high time for menstrual awareness, has taken a step forward by training the local women to produce sanitary napkins on their own. Total 10 women were trained on producing the local cost sanitary napkins on August 2016. The training led ahead to start their own micro enterprise where women will be handling the production and sales of the napkins. This is a highly remarkable steps of ICA Nepal towards addressing one of the major women health issue and promoting menstrual hygiene as well as empowering women economically and encouraging local entrepreneurship.
 
Following the training of production of sanitary napkins, the five days long promotion, sales and marketing training was also provided for 25 more women from this 17th-21st November, 2016. The training focused on teaching various aspects of marketing to the women group, on developing marketing strategies and promoting their products to local area. The training resulted being very effective which enhanced the participant’s confidence and knowledge on their product.
 
The major point we want to highlight here is that this small initiation is not only focused on providing the income generation platform to the women but on bringing the bigger change in society. The proper promotion of sanitary napkins will ensure the change in practice of using hygienic products, increased awareness on local and individual level about menstrual hygiene and reduce the tendency of oppressing menstruation talks. The training period showed itself how women can open her mind if the male members help to create a comfortable environment to discuss these issues. Women can come out of their boundaries and take the lead to create better change in the society.
 
ICA Nepal thus hopes to empower women to bring the healthy change in this traditionally misleading practice. We vision for the day where women will free themselves from the tag of impurities during menstruation and be responsible towards her menstrual and reproductive health. ICA Nepal will be expanding its approaches in other innovative ways to reach more rural communities for promotion of menstrual hygiene in coming future as well in which we hope we will have all of your support.
 
Follow ICA Nepal on: 
 
Blog: www,icanepal.blogspot,com 

VE Affiliate, Human and Hope Association: Providing Education to Cambodian Kids

The marginalized Cambodian kids in rural area have less opportunities to start school at the age of six, which is the standard in Cambodia. Due to lateness at school, some kids are not ready to start yet and learn very slowly. Another thing, with the carelessness of teachers at public school, most kids copy bad behavior from their surrounding environment which affects their future learning and behavior.

To get them to start school early is the best way to solve the above issues. Human and Hope Association located in Siem Reap, Cambodia has started this program since 2013 with 10 students graduating each year.  It is one of their most successful programs.

The five years old marginalized kids will be attended this program for a year, then they are enrolled in grade one at public school. According to the curriculum: Monday – Thursday, they study Khmer alphabet, do coloring, do arts and crafts, play with toys, do some fun activities in our study area and brush their teeth daily. On Friday, they learn living values, watch movie, and pick up trash inside HHA.

Here is one of a successful story of our kid after attended our program:

“Tola came with his mother to enroll in our preschool class, while we were recruiting our new preschool class for 2015-2016. A shy and like crying boy, who was five-year old and came from a very poor family.  At first, he was very naughty and hot-tempered and he rarely play with others. However, after joining with us for nearly one year, he remarkably grew into confident, sociable, and very eager to learn. He is now has enrolled in grade one at public school and continue studying Khmer and English with us.

Tola’s mother once said, “My son has learned many hours at home. When he got sick, he didn’t want to miss the class until I strongly encouraged him. Moreover, his behavior has changed a lot as he respects me, his father, and his classmates.”

It costs $120USD to place one marginalised kid in a year-long preschool program at Human and Hope Association.

Human and Hope Association needs your support to fund 10 kids for 2017, so please make a tax deductible donation today! https://www.villageearth.org/global-affiliates/human-and-hope-association

Best,
San Thai

Director

Human and Hope Association

Siem Reap, Cambodia

Donate: https://www.humanandhopeassociation.org/donate/

Purchase our handicrafts: http://hopehandicrafts.com

50% Match #GivingTuesday on Donations to Village Earth and Global Affiliates

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November 29th is #GivingTuesday and it will be the best day of the year to support Village Earth and our Global Affiliates. Globalgiving.org will be matching all donations 50% up to $1000! That means If you donate $1000 Globalgiving.org will add another $500!!! BUT, funds will run out fast so to ensure your donation is matched you need to donate as early as possible Tuesday (starting at midnight).

Use the link below automatically add this event to your calendar

View Eligible Projects

https://www.globalgiving.org/donate/9388/village-earth/

Amahoro Project: Infuse Peace Building Content with an Emphasis on Critical and Creative Thinking for the University of Ngozi, local communities and schools in Burundi, East Africa and Beyond

 

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“Amahoro” is the Kirundi word for peace. Founded in 1999 with a commitment to peace and reconciliation, its University of Ngozi (UNG) is uniquely situated to be a laboratory for peace-building and sustainable development and the Amahoro Project hopes to help lead the way. We recognize that economic development will suffer if violence continues and that peace will be a casualty if communities remain mired in poverty. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world, emerging from colonization and forty years of violence. Recent conflicts currently threaten the last eight years of stability but conditions in the region of Ngozi have remained peaceful for many years and that is one of the principle reasons why we are working there. Those committed to this project believe that sustainable development must wed with restorative educational innovations to prepare new leaders to heal and foster civil society as basic infrastructure needs are addressed. In all our endeavors, we propose to use locally generated and regionally applicable case- and project-based learning along with ideas and skills for peace building (i.e.,  improved communication, cooperation, conflict resolution and more) to transform surface or memorized learning into a greater emphasis on critical and creative thinking. Over the course of this project, the UNG will be established as a viable center for research and development in sustainable peace and development. With this grant, those at the UNG can help Burundi forge (1) a recovery and rebirth of spirit, (2) reconcile wounds, differences, rivalries, prejudices, and hatreds, (3) resolve to understand the truth of the past, fix the present, and prepare for a better future; and (4) reinforce the resilience needed to rebuild an impoverished, post-colonial nation.

 

Benefits

There are currently some 1,700 students at the University of Ngozi. Our peace-building efforts will impact each of these students in every class they take throughout their college careers. Each new class of 400+ will enjoy a similar duel training in disciplinary case-based, problem-based, and project-based learning infused with peace building skills of improved communication, cooperation, conflict resolution, mediation and more. When they graduate, these students will move into various communities across this nation of approximately eleven million as well as into neighboring nations of Rwanda and Uganda. Once available on various websites and translated from English into French and Kirundi, these materials will also be accessible to other colleges and universities in Burundi as well as school systems nationally. Eventually, these materials should prove useful to faculty and school leaders around the world, especially those in areas emerging from conflict.

 

Responsibilities

Staff members and instructors at the University of Ngozi will draw from the four years of interviews, surveys, research and development that created a foundation for this work on sustainable peace and development, e.g., Timpson, Ndura, &. Bangayimbaga (2015) Conflict, reconciliation, and peace education: Moving Burundi toward a sustainable future. (New York, NY: Routledge). Testing will follow the principles laid out in ongoing research and development for case study learning as described in several published sources, e.g., Timpson, W. and D. K. Holman, Eds. (2014) Controversial Case studies for teaching on sustainability, conflict, and diversity. (Madison, WI: Atwood); Timpson, W., E. Brantmeier, N. Kees, T. Cavanagh, C. McGlynn and E. Ndura-Ouédraogo (2009) 147 practical tips for teaching peace and reconciliation. (Madison, WI: Atwood).

 

Goals

The project’s goals of supporting sustainable peace and development recognizes that without peace there will not be the foundation needed for community, economic and environmental health as reflected in the most popular definitions of sustainability. Likewise, without healthy communities, a healthy economy and a healthy land base, both cultivated and natural, the potential for peace will be uncertain. Our emphasis on training university instructors and teachers in the skills of peace-building—i.e., effective communication, cooperation, critical and creative thinking—will then be spread throughout the curriculum and across levels and disciplines as we link these to an emphasis on case-based, problem-based, and project-based learning, e.g., Timpson & Holman, Eds. (2011), Case Studies of Classrooms and Communication: Integrating Diversity, Sustainability, Peace and Reconciliation (Madison, WI: Atwood) as well as Timpson’s (2002) book, Teaching and Learning Peace (Madison, WI: Atwood). Once these materials are trialed at the University of Ngozi, they will be mounted on the University’s website for others to access in Burundi, both in higher education and local schools, as well as in neighboring countries and others world-wide who are also emerging out of conflict.

 

Evaluation

Instructors from the University of Ngozi (UNG) will be trained in case-based, problem-based, and project-based learning that emphasizes critical and creative thinking, cooperation and communication, i.e., the skills of peace-building infused into subject matter content studies. These instructors, in turn, will evaluate the impact of these reforms on their own students. These instructors will then lead efforts to train colleagues on campuses and in schools across Burundi as well as in surrounding region who come to the conferences that are hosted by this project at UNG. Instructors in the area of computer sciences will take the lead in facilitating communication about access to project materials at a distance via the University’s website.

 

January, 2017: Organize professional development conferences for instructors at all levels and across all disciplines, beginning with those at the University of Ngozi.

  • A conference on case-based learning infused with peace-building content and skills will be organized at UNG and lead by Professor Timpson.
  • Feb.-May: Subsequent conferences on case-based learning infused with peace-building content and skills will be organized and lead by instructors from UNG for instructors at other campuses as well as teachers in the region and beyond.
  • Jan.-May: Recruit instructors at the University of Ngozi in the various disciplines who would complete a second graduate online offering in the communication skills needed to support effective instruction.

Maloca Working with Kamaiura of Brazil to Mitigate Impacts of Deforestation and Climate Change

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Maloca is working with the Kamaiura to enable them to build a new village. The existing Kamaiurávillage that counts almost 300 people will split and a few families will move a new village as a measure to reduce the stress on the environment around the current Kamaiurá village, thus ensuring maintenance of livelihoods for all Kamaiurá people.
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Extreme deforestation in Mato Grosso state produced changes in the Xingu’s micro climate in the past few years: the raining season changed; rains come very late or do not come at all, affecting manioc crops, water levels (fish numbers decrease) and drying the forest (which create fierce wild fires). Manioc crops that the Kamaiura planted died three times this year leaving the Kamaiurá people on the verge of famine, with little more than water to eat for days at a time. Because of extreme dryness of the air and vegetation, wild fires burned out of control this year, engulfing swaths of forest and savannah, killing animals, destroying their habitat for years to come and reducing even more the chance of future rains. All these factors put enormous stress on the environment where the Kamaiura live and are placing at risk the Kamaiura livelihoods.
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The Kamaiurá solution
The chief of the Kamaiurá, Kotok, is very concerned about the future of his people and he decided to act: he will split his Kamaiurá village in two and open a new village where he and a few families will move. The new village will be still on  Kamaiurá  territory, where his ancestors used to live a few generations ago.
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The proceeds of the fundraiser will help but tools that the Kamaiurá have asked for in order to speed up the process of building their village and ease the hard physical work they need to put. The new village will be built according to traditional Kamaiurá architecture.
Fundraiser link (also see attached photos):
Thank you,
Luminita

Empowering Youth Cambodia: Using Sports to Develop Future Leaders in Cambodia

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Using Sports to Develop Future Leaders in Cambodia:

Empowering Youth in Cambodia (EYC) has had great success in developing young leaders from marginalized backgrounds that are now helping to build their country back and help others overcome barriers. To nurture and develop young people requires a holistic approach, and so one of EYC’s many unique offerings is a sports programs for their students. EYC’s sports include cycling, football (soccer), yoga, ultimate frisbee, swimming and dancing; each activity providing opportunities for teamwork, physical development, and fun. EYC has plans to focus on greater numbers of girls participating. Please consider making a donation to support these amazing young people and have your impact grow. https://www.villageearth.org/global-affiliates/empowering-youth-cambodia

EYC works in four slum areas in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and together with the community, we empower vulnerable young people through education, mentoring and direct support.  www.eycambodia.org

Annual Report from Mila Yatan Pika Pte Oyate Okolakiciye (Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization)

 

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This report is for the period of July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2016.    Mila Yatan Pika Pte Oyate Okolakiciye (Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization) continues to provide a home/pasture for members of the Pte Oyate (buffalo nation) and the community continues to reap the benefits in its of spiritual and physical nourishment from them.

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Our relatives standing with a little one.  8/01/15

 

July 2015

The Wakanyeja Woapiye Wicoti  (Children’s Healing Camp) was held in Porcupine, SD on July 1 – 5.   Enrollment was set for twenty-five (25) children between the ages of 0 – 11 years but this number was quickly surpassed after an overwhelming response by parents, grandparents and guardians.  A total of fifty-one (51) children participated in the camp activities with thirty-eight (38) camping in the tipis during the camp period.  Children received a Wopakinte (spiritual purification) with some receiving a Lakota spiritual name.  Other activities included horseback riding, trips to Evans Plunge, a large, in-door swimming pool in Hot Springs, SD and to Mato Paha (Bear Butte), Sturgis, SD to walk to the top of the sacred butte to offer prayers.

We offer our deep appreciation and gratitude to all those who volunteered and offered their services, including the Students Shoulder to Shoulder participants whose organization is based in Denver, CO, and the Wisconsin based group Gunderson-Lutheran Medical Center.  We also acknowledge the tunkasila (grandfather) and unci (grandmother) spirits and the two wakan iyeska (interpreters of the sacred) for their teachings and for the healings received by the participants and the volunteers.

 

August 2015

The Lakota Wikoskalaka Yuwitapi  (Lakota Gathering of Young Women) was held in Porcupine, SD on August 10 – 15.  The camp offered traditional teachings related to becoming a young woman.  A number of them received their Lakota spiritual name and participated in the womanhood ceremony with the help of the Wakan Iyeska (Interpreter of the Sacred) Hmuya Mani and other women volunteers.  Other activities included horseback riding, talking circles,  setting up tipis, and a walk to the top of Mato Paha (Bear Butte), Sturgis, SD to take spiritual offerings.

 

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Journey to Mato Paha (Bear Butte) Sturgis,

 

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Young women  resting on way to top of Bear Butte

 

 

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Communicating with relative, the horse, and preparing to ride

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  Volunteers and some of young women participants

Awards received in various categories for their work in making the Young Women’s Gathering a success.  National Indian Health Board conference, Washington, DC, September, 2015.

 

September 2015

The caretaker continued to make weekly checks on the buffalo to ensure their well-being.

The suicides on the Pine Ridge Reservation have increased since January.  We continue to make our spiritual offerings and will work to assist the young people and their families by continuing to offer the healing camps for the children, the young women and the young boys and young men.

 

October 2015

Knife Chief Buffalo Nation co- sponsored a conference “Ending Trans-generational Grief in Native Families” on October 8, 9, 10 in Rapid City, SD with approximately 35 participants.

The conference was in partnership with the Tiospaye Sakowin Education and Healing Center.  This Center is comprised of four groups – Tasunke Wakan Okolakiciye (Medicine Horse Society) promotes Lakota lifeways with emphasis on Lakota language revitalization and healing; Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Society promotes re-establishing and strengthening relationship with the buffalo nation; Oaye Luta Okolakiciye (Healing Journey Society) promotes healing from substance abuse/chemical dependency; and Sung Nagi Okolakiciye (Horse Spirit promotes strengthening relationship with the horse nation.  These four organizations work together for the healing of the Lakota people.

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November 2015

We co-sponsored the Koskalaka Wica Yuwita Pi Wicoti (Young Boys/Men) Gathering Camp on November 6, 8, 9, held in Porcupine, SD.  Details of the event can be found on the website (same name).  This Camp is the second of two held in 2015 due to the great need of healing for our young males.  The first Camp was held in June.   We are so thankful and appreciative of all who volunteer their time, energy and resources so that the young people have this great opportunity.

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We worked on securing an agreement and partnership with the Oglala Sioux Parks and Recreation Authority for the lease of pasture for the buffalo.

 

December 2015

Knief Chief Buffalo Nation received a gift of 17 buffalo from the Devyn Strong Estate in California.  The buffalo were transported back and transitioned into the pasture.

We co-sponsored a conference on December 16, 17, 18 entitled “Utilization of Culture, Language and Lifeways to Impact our Children’s Education” as part of the Tiospaye Sakowin Education and Healing Center.  Conference was held in Rapid City, SD with approximately 30 participants.

The Conference was intended for service providers and those in the helping field, education, school staff, mental health, counseling, social services, social workers, youth program staff, and juvenile detention staff.

Knife Chief Buffalo Nation hosted a planning meeting after the Conference to plan for events and strategies to continue the work.

Will co-facilitate cultural learning sessions for the community on the sacred ceremony of the Wi Wanyang Wacipi (Sundance) and the Inipi (purification/renewal ceremony) .
Will begin the planning and preparation for the Manhood Ceremony to be held in the spring.
Planning and preparation is in  process for the following camps:
Young Men’s Camp – May 28 – 30

Children’s Camp – July 6 – 10

Young Women’s Camp – July 28 – 31

We are in the process of developing a partnership to help establish a Girls Preparatory School in Porcupine, SD on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
The caretaker continues to check on our relatives, the buffalo, two times per week depending on the weather and road accessibility.

 

January 2016

The Tiospaye Sakowin Education and Healing Center partnering societies met on January 24 and January 31 to collaborate on planning and scheduling upcoming activities.  A description of the societies within the Tiospaye was given in the October 2015 report.

The Knife Chief Tiospaye began the one-year mourning period following the loss of a beloved family member.   Sister Ardis Iron Cloud began her journey to the spirit world on January 11, 2016.  She was a co-founder of the Knife Chief Buffalo Project which began the development process in collaboration with the American Friends Service Committee to return buffalo to the land.  The first buffalo were placed in the pasture in 2001.

The Tiospaye Sakowin Education and Healing Center support the establishment of a Girls Preparatory School in Porcupine, SD.  Plans are underway to open the school in August, 2016 and to begin with sixth and seventh grades.

 

February 2016

Caretaker continued to make checks on the buffalo, pasture, and food and water supply twice during the week with weather permitting.

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March  2016

During this month two activities were held.  A Lakota traditional teaching was held on March 14 by Hmuya Mani, Interpreter for the Sacred.

A sacred site visit was made to Hinhan Kaga Paha (Imitates Owl Mountain) aka Harney Peak in the Blacks Hills of South Dakota.  A successful initiative was undertaken and led by two Lakota men to change the name from Harney Peak to Black Elk Peak.  Harney Peak was named after Army General William S. Harney.  Black Elk is a famous “holy man” as referred to by historians.  It is known that he climbed and stood on top of the Peak to do a vision quest, one of the seven sacred Lakota ceremonies.  (Note:  the Rapid City Journal reported on August 12, 2016, that the Federal Board of Geographic Names voted 12 to 0 in favor of the name change.)

Every year Native Americans from across South Dakota climb to the top of the mountain in March to take offerings of prayers and food to the grandmother and grandfather spirits.

 

April 2016

Knife Chief Board members attended the Oglala Sioux Parks & Recreation Authority (OSPRA) Board meeting on April 12 to negotiate an amendment to the pasture lease which was approved.

 

May 2016

On May 14 an annual visit was made to Pe Sla, one of seven sacred sites located in the Black Hills.  Offerings of food and prayers were taken to the site.

On May 18, a young man completed the manhood ceremony by making offerings of prayer and killing a buffalo.  The meat is used for sacred ceremonies and shared with people who receive blessings from this.

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Grandfather, father and brother support their relative (center) in the manhood ceremony.

In collaboration with other societies within Tiospaye Sakowin Education & Healing Center, Knife Chief Buffalo Nation supported the “Koskalaka WicaYuwita Pi” (Gathering of Young Women) on May 26 -29, 2016.

 

June 2016

On June 4 a trip was made with girls and young women to dig and gather timpsila (wild turnip) used in preparing sacred foods for ceremonies.

A sacred site visit was made to Pte He Hota (aka Devil’s Tower) on June 18.  Offerings of food and prayers were made.

 

Plans for Future Events

Final plans were made and work was done in preparation for the arrival of the Students Shoulder -to -Shoulder (SSS) group on July 04.  The SSS, the international school of global citizenship partners with the following NGOs (Non Governmental Organizations): Bolivia, Cambodia, Detroit, Kenya, Nepal, New Orleans, Nicaragua, Tibet and Pine Ridge  Knife Chief Buffalo Nation).   The Knife Chief Buffalo Nation collaborated with SSS staff during the year to provide a variety of experiences for high school age students from across the U.S.  One experience will be for the group to assist with the Children’s Healing Camp scheduled from July 6 – 10, 2016.

Preparations were made for the Young Women’s Camp which is scheduled for July 28 – 31, 2016.  The Young Men’s Camp will be held in October or November, 2016.

 

Conclusion 

This has been a year of challenges.  The Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization has experienced the loss of family members – two brother/cousins in October and November, and a sister in January. On the Pine Ridge Reservation, many families, extended relatives and friends have been impacted by the many suicide attempts, and by the completed suicides.

As of this writing, the Pine Ridge Reservation has also seen five deaths of young people since August 2016 due to violence, two were shot and killed by non-Indians; another two shot and allegedly killed by tribal member(s); and another person died as a result of being beaten.   The loss of a life due to violence is so sad but also so heartbreaking when young ones are the victims.  In July, 2016 a two-year old child was beaten and died as a result of injuries. The tribal council terminated three judges due to the situation which led to his death.  In a more recent case, two young children ages 4 and 5 years old were found in extreme conditions – described as “nearly starved to death.”  They were airlifted out and remain in a hospital off the Reservation.  Tribal official and various program personnel have met and are attempting to address these situations.

With all this in mind, it is evident that so much more must be done now to help with healing the people so that we will not continue to carry the burden of trauma and place this trauma on the tawacin (mind), tacan (body) and nagi (spirit) of the young and on the generations to come.

The sacred teachings received from our relatives, the buffalo nation, can help us to live in harmony and in a healthy lifestyle if we follow the teachings.  The Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization (KCBNO) will continue to participate in the reciprocal relationship with the buffalo nation, and will continue to work in partnership with other societies and organizations to host the children’s camp, the young men’s camp and the young women’s camp.  The relationships made with them continue thorough out the year and not just during the camp days,

We extend a heartfelt appreciation to the people who support our efforts whether it be financially, physically or spiritually.  Your support is truly appreciated and we especially appreciate the Tunkasila (spiritual entities) for their continued support and guidance.  We also acknowledge the Pte Oyate (Buffalo Nation) for what they inspire in us and for their teachings, i.e., protection of the young, conservation of the land and the strength and fortitude to endure whatever is placed in our path.  Lila wopila tanka! (We thank you all very much).

 

CONTACT INFORMATION

Email:  [email protected]

Telephone:  605-441-2914, 605-407-0091

Website:  www.knifechiefbuffalonation.org

or www.villageearth.org look for Knife Chief Buffalo Nation Organization under Global Affiliate.

 

 

Help VE Affiliate “Maloca” Support the Indigenous Kamaiura of Brazil Relocate Their Village To Mitigate Impacts of Climate Change

readytowork-2Village Earth Affiliate “Maloca” is seeking funds on the Crowdrise fundraising platform to “Help an indigenous Kamaiurá village move in order to combat climate change effects and survive“.
Please consider supporting this cause. 
The soil around the Kamaiura village suffer because of change in microclimate (dur to deforestation around Xingu Park) and a rather big Kamaiura population. The waters of the lake that feeds the Kamaiura are low and do not give enough fish (also due to changes in climate). The Kamaiura suffered from hunger this year – their manioc crops, their staple food, died three times this year. 
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The Kamaiurá have a solution
The chief of the Kamaiurá, Kotok, is very concerned about the future of his people and he decided to act: he will move from his Kamaiurá village and open a new village on a piece of land where his ancestors used o live a few generations ago. This move will reduce the stress on the environment around the current Kamaiurá village and will ensure maintenance of livelihoods for all Kamaiurá people. Splitting from the main village and creating a new one is a big deal (like splitting a country in two), but this is their own solution to ensuring the whole population will have access to enough food for the years to come.
If we get enough funds, the money will get to the Kamaiura in mid-November and they can start working on opening the new village. Spread the word, spread the love and … support the cause!
Thank you so much!
Luminita

Event: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Livelihoods in High Biodiversity-Poverty Hotspots | Oct. 27th, Fort Collins, Co.

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Join us October 27th from 5pm – 6:30 at Avogadros Number, 605 S. Mason Street in Fort Collins, Colorado where Village Earth Executive Director will serve on a panel hosted by Trees, Water, & People to discuss linking conservation and sustainable livelihoods in high biodiversity-poverty hotspots

 

Moderator:

Gemara Gifford, Development Director at Trees, Water, & People

Gemara Gifford is Trees, Water & People’s Director of Development. Gem raises funds and develops projects for TWP’s International and National programs with an emphasis on biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihoods. Her graduate research in the Highlands of Guatemala aimed to identify practices that optimize bird conservation and the ability of local communities to meet their nutritional and economic needs, and she is now beginning to replicate this model within TWP’s projects in Central Honduras. Gem brings to TWP her extensive background in wildlife conservation, community-based development, and a commitment to working with marginalized communities, critters, and habitats in        the US and Latin America. She completed her M.S. in Natural Resources at Cornell University as a Gates Millennium Scholar, and her B.S. in Zoology at Colorado State University as a Distinguished First Generation Student Scholar.


Panelists:

Sebastian Africano, International Director at Trees, Water & People

Sebastian Africano is the International Director at Trees, Water & People (TWP), which he first joined in 2005 as a Marketing Intern for TWP’s clean cookstove program in Honduras. He joined TWP full-time in 2009 and currently manages all macro aspects of our International Programs, including business development, partnerships and program strategy.  He has a BS in International Business and Marketing from Penn State University, and is looking forward to receiving his MBA from Colorado State University (CSU) in May 2017.  Additionally he supports several CSU programs in the College of Business (Executive Education and Entrepreneurship) and the Warner College of Natural Resources (Center for Collaborative Conservation, CLTL Master’s Program).  


Robin Reid: Director at the Center for Collaborative Conservation

Robin Reid is the Director of the Center for Collaborative Conservation at Colorado State University.  As Director, she oversees all the CCC’s programs and staff. She is also a Professor in the Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability and Senior Research Scientist in the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at CSU. As faculty, she teaches courses in collaborative conservation and sustainability, and helps discover new ways to implement collaborative research-for-action for people and the     environment in the drylands of East Africa, Asia and North America. 


David Bartecchi: Executive Director, Village Earth

David Bartecchi is the Executive Director of Village Earth, a Fort Collins-based not-for-profit organization that provides training and consulting to the aid and relief community including an online Certificate Program in Sustainable Community Development through CSU Online. Village Earth also manages a Global Affiliate program that provides organizational support to 20 grassroots and intermediary organizations in 14 different countries. David has spent the past 18 years working primarily with Native American communities to reclaim their lands from the Bureau of Indian Affairs Range Unit Leasing Program and with indigenous communities in Peru and Ecuador.


Marcela Velasco, Associate Professor, Colorado State University – Political Science

Marcela is an Associate Professor of Political Science at Colorado State University. Her areas of specialization include Latin American Politics, social movements, environmental politics, and development politics. Her research is on Colombian indigenous and Afro-Colombian organizations and how they shape local politics.


Brett Bruyere, Director, Conservation Learning Through Leadership Graduate Program

Brett’s teaching and research addresses environmental communication and community-based conservation, often in a context of developing world settings. He also serves as the Director of the department’s Conservation Leadership through Learning graduate program, and is the founder of Samburu Youth Education Fund, a nonprofit dedicated to educational access in the northern region of Kenya.


Rina Hauptfeld, PhD Candidate, Colorado State University

Rina Hauptfeld is a current doctoral student in the GDPE and HDNR department. As a CCC Fellow her project is focused on partnering with the Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation (CCEF) and the Filipino Citizen Science Network to take advantage of citizen science momentum while giving practitioners tools to sustain work towards community based conservation.

Better Decision-making Through Community Mapping in Mongolia | October 26, 12pm. CSU Morgan Library

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Village Earth and the Center for Collaborative Conservation are hosting a very special presentation on community-based mapping and GIS by  Enkhtungalag Chuluunbaatar from the Ger Communty Mapping Center based-in Ulaanbaatar Mongolia. This presentation will take place from 11:30am to 1pm, October 26th at the Morgan Library Event Hall on the campus of Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado.

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Enkhtungalag Chuluunbaatar

Abstract: Ulaanbaatar, capital city of Mongolia is home to almost half of the country’s population, in which more than 60% live in the ger area. Centralized administrative power, rapid urbanization, economic and political instability calls for a stronger civil society with a vision for long-term, sustainable, and inclusive development. Ger Community Mapping Center sees community mapping as one of the tools to inform and empower local communities and the general public to promote participatory decision-making. Community mapping draws on the implicit knowledge within local communities on everyday issues with long-term consequences.

This presentation will take place from 11:30am to 1pm, October 26th at the Morgan Library on the campus of Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado.

Co-sponsored by Village Earth and

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Applying the APT Approach to Wicked Problems in International Community Development.

Community Development

What are wicked problems? Can sustainable community development be considered a wicked problem? If so, what value does this this lens provide us, what changes in policy and practice does it imply and what is preventing international non-governmental organizations from addressing wicked problems?

In a perspective essay in the forthcoming October 2016 edition of the journal Landscape and Urban Planning, noted scholars in the field of planning and complex problems Brian Head and Wei-Ning Xiang, building on earlier works (Xiang & Wei-Ning, 2013 & B. W. Head & Alford, 2013), argue for the expanded use of Adaptive, Participatory and Transdisciplinary (APT) approaches when dealing with “wicked problems” (Brian W. Head & Wei-Ning, 2016). In this brief blog post, I will attempt to reflect what this might mean for development NGOs.

 

International Community Development as a Dilemma for Traditional Project Management

Anyone who works in international community development understands the unique challenge of planning in such a complex and unpredictable socio-political context. Ika and Damiam (2014) offer some reason why international development projects are so complex from a project management perspective (Ika & Damian, 2014).

  • International development projects cover almost every sector of project management application
  • International development projects are public sector projects
  • International development projects are international projects
  • International development projects share managerial/organisational challenges with conventional projects
  • International development projects are different and more complex: unique goals and way of organising
  • International development projects are different and more complex to manage: unique context and institutional challenges
  • Different types of projects emerge with time and with an increasing complexity
  • Overall, international development projects are an extreme case of conventional projects

 

Image from Ika and Damian 2014

Above Image from (Ika & Damian, 2014)

 

International Community Development as a Wicked Problem

The term “wicked problems” was first uttered in 1967 by W.F. Churchman at a seminar he had organized to investigate whether lessons learned from the space program could be utilized to solve the various social problems tearing at fabric of American society at the time (Skaburskis & Andrejs, 2008). When presented with a list of differences between social and scientific/technical problems by Horst Rittel, Churchman responded, “Hmm, those sound like “wicked problems” – kicking-off an entire field of study. Rittel, later refined and summarized the list in a now famous 1973 article in Policy Science by Rittel and Webber called “Dilemmas in a general theory of planning” (Rittel & Webber, 1973).

Rittel and Webber’s 10 characteristics of wicked problems (quoted in B. W. Head & Alford, 2013)

  1. There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem.
  2. Wicked problems have no “stopping rule” (i.e., no definitive solution).
  3. Solutions to wicked problems are not true or false, but good or bad.
  4. There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem.
  5. Every (attempted) solution to a wicked problem is a “one-shot operation”; the results cannot be readily undone, and there is no opportunity to learn by trial and error.
  6. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan.
  7. Every wicked problem is essentially unique.
  8. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem.
  9. The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways.
  10. The planner has no “right to be wrong” (i.e., there is no public tolerance of experiments that fail).

Ok, anyone working in community development should relate pretty quickly to the lists by both Ika and Hodgson as well as Rittel and Webber, so how does the lens of “wicked problems” help? Well, according to Head 2008, traditionally, social planners have “coped” with complex social and ecological problems by “cherry picking” problems “[dealing] with manageable elements today, while recognizing that there will be other aspects to tackle tomorrow. However, because of their amorphous and interdisciplinary nature, wicked problems require an entirely different approach.

According to Xiang (2013, p.2), [b]y examining a wicked problem as a whole through a panoramic social lens rather than a scientific microscope, and working with it through an open and heuristic process of collective learning, exploration, and experimentation, the APT approach [Adaptive, Participatory, and Transdisciplinary] promises to be efficacious in fostering collaborative behaviour, reducing conflicts, building trust among all stakeholders and communities involved, and ultimately producing better and more satisfying results.

To be fair, the NGO community hasn’t been entirely in the dark when it comes to debates about the shortcomings of traditional project management models. In fact, as Ika and Damian (2014) point out, “The poor results of projects from the 1950s through the 1980s have led to disillusionment with the traditional approach and widespread calls to change or even reject outright the traditional [project management] approach in [international development] and adopt instead what have been described as ‘process’ projects.” The champions of process projects, most notably David Korten (1980), describe them as long-term projects that become more impactful over time through a process of trial and error (Korten, 1980).

According to Korten “the learning process approach calls for organizations that have little in common with the implementing organization geared to reliable adherence to detailed plans and conditions presented favored in the blueprint approach. Its requirement is for organizations with a well developed capacity for responsive and anticipatory adaptation – organizations that: (a) embrace error; (b) plan with the people; and (c) link knowledge building with action.”

Now, Korten was writing about this in the 1980s so surely NGO’s and other actors in community development have adopted these practices? Sadly, INGDOs are still largely failing to address the wicked problems of community development. There is a longstanding and growing argument that INGDOs are not doing enough to address the world’s social and ecological problems and remain too close to donors and governments to fully utilize their competitive advantage of being neither governments nor private sectors (Banks, Nicola, David, & Michael, 2015).

What is really needed is for INGDOs to engage with communities for the long-term and work as partners to help tease apart and address the complex relationships of power, policies and perceptions in an adaptive, participatory, and transdisciplinary (APT) way. However, despite widespread agreement on the importance of this this kind of partnership, very few INGDOs actually do it because of their failure to take a critical stance on issues of power (Ika and Hodgson, 2014), bias towards a single sector (Romeo, 2003), a particular technological solution (Samper & Jimena, 2012), faddism (Mansuri & Rao, 2004), failure to spend adequate time and resources needed to mobilize and engage the community and focus on implementing the priorities of funders vs. that of communities (Power, Grant, Matthew, & Susan, 2003).

 

Recommendations for INGDOs

  • Being able to implement an APT approach requires high-levels of programmatic freedom which is often compromised by our relationships, in particular funding sources but also political relationships. If we want to truly address wicked problems we need to develop funding and partnership models that allow for the kind of freedom independence they require
  • The traditional “project” or “contract” approach, focused on addressing just one or two sectors for a 3-5 years is too narrowly focused and short-term to address wicked problems. An APT approach requires that INGDOs become skilled in facilitating broad-based participatory planning that engages stakeholders in not only identifying and prioritizing project but more importantly, engaging stakeholders in a thorough analysis of issues in a holistic, transdisciplinary manner. 
  • The role of participatory monitoring and evaluation must be elevated beyond just being accountable to donors to an active process of clarifying and redefining people’s understanding of the issues and behaviors bound-up in wicked problems. In essence, monitoring and evaluation should be viewed as a tool for the social construction of reality. 
  • NGDOs and community workers must promote a culture of self-critical awareness which promotes bottom-up learning among individuals and within institutions.

For more about this topic, read the related blog post: Breaking-out of the Piecemeal Project Approach: The Importance of Holistic Community Planning

If you are interested in the ideas and concepts discussed in this post, you’ll enjoy the following courses in our online certificate program at Colorado State University. Development and the Politics of Empowerment, Approaches to Community Development, Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation, Community Mobilization, Community-Based Organizing,

References Cited:

Banks, N., Nicola, B., David, H., & Michael, E. (2015). NGOs, States, and Donors Revisited: Still Too Close for Comfort? World Development, 66, 707–718.

Head, B. W., & Alford, J. (2013). Wicked Problems: Implications for Public Policy and Management. Administration & Society, 47(6), 711–739.

Head, B. W., & Wei-Ning, X. (2016). Why is an APT approach to wicked problems important? Landscape and Urban Planning, 154, 4–7.

Ika, L. A., & Damian, H. (2014). Learning from international development projects: Blending Critical Project Studies and Critical Development Studies. International Journal of Project Management, 32(7), 1182–1196.

Korten, D. C. (1980). Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach. Public Administration Review, 40(5), 480.

Mansuri, G., & Rao, V. (2004). Community-based (and Driven) Development: A Critical Review.

Power, G., Grant, P., Matthew, M., & Susan, M. (2003). 7. Operationalising bottom–up learning in international NGOs: barriers and alternatives. In Critical Reflections (pp. 86–103).

Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–169.

Romeo, L. G. (2003). The role of external assistance in supporting decentralisation reform. Public Administration and Development: A Journal of the Royal Institute of Public Administration, 23(1), 89–96.

Samper, J., & Jimena, S. (2012). Cross Sector Partnerships for Development in Colombia. The Annual Review of Social Partnerships, 2012(7), 10–10.

Skaburskis, A., & Andrejs, S. (2008). The Origin of “Wicked Problems.” Planning Theory & Practice, 9(2), 277–280.

Xiang, W.-N., & Wei-Ning, X. (2013). Working with wicked problems in socio-ecological systems: Awareness, acceptance, and adaptation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 110, 1–4.

Breaking-out of the Piecemeal Project Approach: The Importance of Holistic Community Planning

Community Development Training

In a recent blog post I argued that if international community development is a “wicked problem” than we should follow the advice of Head and Wei-Ning (2016) and stop “cherry picking” problems and instead adopt an APT (Adaptive, Participatory, and Transdisciplinary) approach. However, the authors give very little insight into what this might actually look like or how it might be applied to a particular disciplinary context like that shared by International Development NGDOs, which has integrated a surprisingly standardized toolbox of procedural norms.

In particular, while NGOs have developed countless tools for collecting information from communities on a wide range of topics such as infrastructure, social networks, gender roles, health, education, natural resources, etc., there is often little rationale for the use of one particular tool over another and the information it’s collecting, aside from generating a pool of information from which ideas for project emerge. As the training manual for one large INGDO states, “assessments, mapping, community profiles, and similar participatory processes can generate a large pool of issues that the community would like to address through projects.” From this pool, stakeholders are generally asked to prioritize or rank issues and identify projects that can be worked-on with support from the NGDO. Single-sector NGDOs will often narrow this participation even further by agreeing to support only those projects within its specialization.

What I find most problematic is that while there is often a strong emphasis among NGDOs on stakeholder participation in providing information and ranking, there is very little emphasis on engaging communities in bigger-picture analysis of the issues – especially at a macro-political level. Why is this a problem? To begin, past experience have likely taught them that NGDOs have a bias for defined technical projects which automatically narrows people’s thinking to “things” like a new well, health clinic, or latrines vs. the often more important but less tangible outcomes like enhanced collaboration with neighboring communities, educating farmers about local land-tenure laws and how they might be impacted by proposed international trade agreements, or addressing the complex gender-based status issues associated with outmigration of young men, as just a few examples.

The second issue with this piecemeal, problem-based planning approach is that there is literally no end to problems. We can always identify, prioritize and create projects to address problems but is doing so moving the community qualitatively towards a better situation? Or, by focusing on “problems’ are we just “putting-out fires” where as soon as one goes out another appears? Furthermore, ranking exercises just tell us how troublesome or annoying a problem is and not necessarily its contribution or role in the larger wicked problem. The same critique could be made about asset-based approaches. Just because something “works” doesn’t mean its amplification, replication, or adaptation is moving the community towards a better, more just situation.

Lastly, the traditional process of planning is overly focused on outcomes and doesn’t emphasize enough the importance of the process itself. Part of the defining characteristic of wicked problems is the role that varying perceptions of that problem have on its potential resolution. Take for example climate change – clearly a wicked problem, and in the United States we have a large population of people who, for various reasons and motivations, do not believe it’s caused by human activity. We also have varying levels of understanding on its severity. Based on the science one would think climate change would be the number one geopolitical priority, that we would be mobilizing like we did to get a man on the moon in the 1960s. One could argue that there needs to be much deeper dialogue taking-place to more closely align our perceptions and behaviors with the science. Community planning is the perfect opportunity to begin this dialogue. It’s an opportunity for people to deeply analyze the issues and facts together and create a shared understanding of the issues and how they can be resolved.

 

How can we apply APT principles to community development planning?

The first step is to not make the mistake of underestimating the complexity of local issues. A good rule of thumb is that they are likely as complex, if not more complex, than the issues in your own home community. Accept that because of cultural, language and privilege you will likely never fully grasp their complexity. It’s important to also recognize that, despite your limitations, you can play a valuable role as a facilitator. First, your ignorance gives you license to ask dumb questions giving you the ability to constantly be learning. Second, the fact that you are not embedded in local social networks gives you the unique perspective to “see the forest for the trees” and understand the range of ways people are thinking about an issue. Not being embedded in social networks can also mean you can more easily navigate them, serving as a broker to help connect individuals and groups that might not do it on their own.

 

The Importance of Holistic Participatory Planning

The planning process I’ve gained the most appreciation for and will be referencing here was developed by the Institute for Cultural Affairs (ICA) and is called the “Technology of Participation.” ICA developed this planning process with the social construction of reality in-mind.  The process, allows for wide-scale participation and follows four stages – visioning, contradictions, strategic directions, and action planning.

 

Community Visioning

How do we overcome the piecemeal, problem-based approach to community planning? A community vision is a shared understanding of the kind of world we want for ourselves, our children, grandchildren and beyond. It should reflect our highest shared values (equity, respect, community, culture, etc) vs. the selfish interest of individuals. In planning circles, a vision is typically 5-20 years in the future but I’ve heard of visions being as far into the future as 100 years. The purpose of a vision is not to serve as a benchmark to assess our progress against. Rather, a vision is something that is always out in the future, just beyond our reach and constantly evolving.

Ideally, a vision should be holistic and encompass any areas the community feels are important. For example, infrastructure, access to land and resources, housing but also less tangible things like the way people treat one another, their status relative to other ethnic groups, cultural revitalization, and language.

A vision overcomes the piecemeal approach by setting a standard by which contradictions, strategies, and actions are measured against, focusing your energy on the things that will help move your community towards its vision.

 

Contradictions

If we all agree that we want to live in a world like the one described by our vision than why aren’t we already there? This is how I understand and describe the contradictions phase of the planning process. This is often where the deepest-level analysis takes place because the participants are asked to view the vision holistically and they are asked to look at the contradictions holistically. This is where you start to get very nuanced discussions about, for example, how the out-migration of young men is causing a whole host of social problem, shifting of gender roles, and health issues and how it is not just about earning more money but how it’s also bound-up in what they’ve learned it means to be a “man”. Such nuanced discussions build awareness and consensus about the issues so by the time you get to the next stage, strategic directions, people are more likely to come to consensus. The goal of this phase is to help clarify and build consensus on the contradictions.

 

Strategic Directions

For the strategic directions phase we ask the participants “What can we do in the next year to begin to overcome the contradictions and move towards our vision. Because they/we now have developed a shared understanding and language to talk about the issues/contradictions, they/we can also develop more nuanced, transdisciplinary strategies to begin to overcome them. But it’s important to remind participants that this is a two-part question – coming up with actions that overcome the contradictions BUT ALSO move us towards our vision. This is where our higher-level values come into play. If we identify preserving our language or forest is a priority than we’re going to rule-out out actions that might endanger our language or forest.

 

Action Planning

The goal of this phase is similar to traditional NGDO action planning models, namely to agree upon who is responsible for what, develop implementation timelines, identify available and needed resources, etc. The difference however, is that people will be much more motivated to follow-through with implementation because they have a deep and nuanced understanding for why they’re doing it and what they hope to achieve.

 

Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation plays a critical role in APT strategies for its contribution to the creation of social reality – namely by helping to answer questions and test assumptions raised during planning and implementation. For example, it was the participants assumption that they could transform young men’s perceptions of what it means to be a man through a series of community plays. To test this they developed a pre and post play questionnaire to assess members of the audience’s perceptions on manhood and whether it was impacted by the play.

 

Conclusion

By transitioning from a piecemeal to a more holistic APT approach to community planning, I argue that NGDOs can play a more impactful role in tackling the wicked problems we face as a global community. Planning approaches like the ICA’s Technology of Participation is one tool to assist this transition. Regardless of the tools we use, as a community, we need move beyond participation as just another donor requirement and instead see it and utilize it as a powerful tool for analysis and transformation.
Topics discussed in this post are also discussed in the following courses in Village Earth/Colorado State University’s online certificate program in sustainable community development: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation, Community Mobilization, Development and the Politics of Empowerment, Community Participation and Dispute Resolution

Upcoming Courses in the Online Certificate Program in Sustainable Community Development

There’s one session left in 2016 for the Village Earth/Colorado State University online certificate program in Sustainable Community Development. Three courses are available (below) and will take place online November 4th – December 9th, 2016. The deadline to register is November 1st, 2016. 

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

Next OfferedDeadline to RegisterRegistration StatusOffered By 
March 3 - April 7, 2017February 28, 2017Open

Course Description

Discover participatory methods in monitoring and evaluation for community development, where multiple stakeholders are involved in the process of planning, collecting, interpreting, communicating, and using information. Gain skills in using regular monitoring and evaluation processes, which will lead to continuous improvements.

Upon completion of this course participants will be able to:

  • Plan a monitoring and evaluation project
  • Develop evaluation questions that address stakeholders needs
  • Select the most appropriate data collection method for a given situation
  • Effectively communicate monitoring and evaluation data
  • Use the monitoring information for effective feedback and improvement

This course counts towards the following specialized tracks: Natural Resources Management, Economic Development, Political Empowerment, Food Security, and Participatory Facilitation, Community Planning and Development.

Instructor: Pilar Robledo

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

Pilar is currently Director of Programming and Training for US Peace Corps in Kiev, Ukraine. She’s also serves as Education Cluster Co-lead at UNICEF Pakistan. Previously she’s worked for UNHCR, Save the Children, International Rescue Committee, and IREX. She holds an MPA in Public Administration from University of Colorado, Denver and a BA in Anthropology and Latin American Studies from CU Boulder.

 

 


Community-Based Organizing

Next OfferedDeadline to RegisterRegistration StatusOffered By 
July 28 - September 1, 2017July 25, 2017Opens March 21, 2017

Course Description
The importance of an approach to community-development that increases the rights of poor and marginalized people within governing structures has never been more apparent. Situations of severe oppression and marginalization demand organizing-techniques that go beyond a traditional “hand-out” style approach to development. Taking a practical hands-on perspective, this course will explore the theories, tools, styles and challenges of community-based organizing. It will discuss practical strategies for developing community leadership and working with marginalized communities. Together, we will discover the impact that ordinary individuals can have on the world.

Upon completion of this course participants will be able to:

  • Apply basic organizing techniques, such as popular education and direct action
  • Understand the role of privilege, race, gender and class in struggles for change
  • Understand the history and basic principles of community organizing
  • Design methods to help support and organize the community in which they are working

This course counts towards the following specialized tracks: Political Empowerment and Community Planning and Development

Instructor: Raul Paz Pastrana

Raul has been an organizer for over eight years and has given many workshops around the country and Latin America. These workshops have focused on diverse topics such as theater of the oppressed, popular education, participatory filmmaking, strategic organizing and base building.

He has worked as the Organizing Director for Centro Humanitario para los Trabajadores, a non-profit that works to empower immigrant workers in the Denver, Colorado area.  He currently works as a Director/Producer and Cinematographer at Andar Films in New York, NY.


Tourism and Development

Next OfferedDeadline to RegisterRegistration StatusOffered By 
July 28 - September 1, 2017July 25, 2017Opens March 21, 2017

Globally, tourism initiatives receive considerable public funding and private investment as a means of economically developing low-income communities. NGOs are taking on a growing role in local tourism initiatives, as well as voluntourism, in hopes of injecting capital into the communities where they work. Amongst proponents, tourism is seen as a mechanism for local communities to capitalize on assets such as the natural environment and cultural heritage. Yet critiques often note that tourism can be destructive, elite and at times oppressive. In light of this critical lens, we will explore both successful and problematic tourism initiatives. We will critically examine the nature of tourism, its impacts on communities and considerations that must be taken into account in order for a tourism project to have the desired impact of development without destroying.

Upon completion of this course participants will be able to:

  • Identify best practices for successful tourism initiatives
  • Work with a community to evaluate how tourism may impact their lives
  • Network with private, public and non-profit institutions in the field of tourism and development
  • Understand common challenges and issues with eco-tourism and voluntourism

Counts Towards the Following Specialized Tracks:  Economic Development and Community Planning and Development

Instructor: Cynthia Ord, M.S.

Cynthia Ord holds a Masters of Tourism and Environmental Economics degree from the University of the Balearic Islands in Palma de Mallorca, Spain and a B.A. in Spanish and Philosophy from Colorado State University. Her M.S. program focused on the socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts of global tourism. Ord’s research focused on non-commercial volunteer tourism networks. She currently lives in Addis Ababa and works in tech solutions for tour operators in Ethiopia. In the past, she’s worked on e-market access and business development for small and medium sized tourism enterprises in the Global South, with a specialty in Latin America. In her spare time, she is a travel blogger.